Short and Long-Term AVS (Audio-Visual Stimulation) Effects in an Alzheimers Patient as Documented by QEEG and LORETA
Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D. and Leslie Sherlin, B.A.
Introduction: Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS) can induce a frequency-following response in the EEG as measured on the scalp (Budzynski, et al. (1999), but can AVS produce changes in the subcortical areas of the brain of an Alzheimers patient? The new technique known as LORETA (Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was used to determine deeper structure involvement and to compare that with QEEG results from the surface. Follow-up QEEGs and LORETA analyses will determine if a training program of 30 AVS sessions plus intermittent home use results in extended effects over a longer period. Method: A baseline QEEG (eyes open, eyes closed and serial sevens challenge) was followed by 20 minutes of AVS (a pseudorandom protocol with a frequency range of 9 to 22 Hz) during which a second eyes closed QEEG was taken. This was followed by a third QEEG right after stimulation and then a fourth after 15 minutes of rest following termination of the AVS. A final AVS was taken after the patient completed 30 sessions of daily use of the 20 minute AVS protocol over a six-week period. Two follow-up QEEGs were performed in the year following the 30 day training.
Results: The analyses included QEEG spectral investigation as well as LORETA analysis. Considerable agreement was found between the QEEG spectral values and LORETA density values in deeper structures. For example, the QEEG spectral analysis showed the AVS stimulation decreased delta at T3 during stimulation and 15 minutes afterward and then after the 30 session training some 12 weeks later. The LORETA showed a decrease in delta in the left temporal, Brodmann Area 42 and in the superior temporal gyrus temporal lobe after the AVS and then after the 30 session training. Results from the follow-up QEEGs and the LORETAs derived from them will be discussed.
Conclusion The AVS appears to produce improvement in the current density of various brain regions that are involved in Alzheimers Disease progression. The results appear as early as the first AVS stimulation period and last through the continuation of the 30 session training period with no or minimal decrease in results. The QEEG results generally agree with the LORETA but, of course, do not delineate the deeper structure condition. The results of the follow-ups will help determine if the AVS effects hold up even as the Alzheimers progression occurs.
Budzynski, T., Jordy, J., Budzynski, H., Tang, H., & Claypoole, K. (1999). Academic performance enhancement with photic stimulation and EDR feedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3, 11-21.
Nova Tech EEG, Inc. Knoxville, TN (provided the programs to generate LORETA figures and images).
Leslie Sherlin received his undergraduate degree and first years of graduate school from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville while working in the Brain Research and Neuropsychology laboratory of Dr. Joel Lubar, a pioneer in neurofeedback with attention disorders. To further the integration of advanced EEG imaging he went to the Key Institute for Mind Brain Research in Zurich, Switzerland to learn Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) directly from the developer Dr. Roberto Pascual-Marqui. Following this training he co-founded Nova Tech EEG, Inc. to facilitate the development and widespread distribution of powerful, flexible and accessible tools for the Brain Electromagnetic Research. He remains the president of Nova Tech EEG, Inc. He holds the degree of Master of Science in Clinical Psychology and is currently a doctoral candidate (Ph.D.) in Psychology. Following his first 5 years of intensive research in QEEG and LORETA, he was employed in Scottsdale, AZ practicing QEEG analysis and neurotherapy clinically for 3 years. In addition to being president of Nova Tech EEG, Inc, he currently is adjunct faculty at Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ teaching QEEG and neurofeedback; is a neurofeedback practitioner at Southwest Naturopathic Medical Center; and is employed by Q-Metrx, Inc. in Burbank, CA, a QEEG analysis service. He is certified at the Diplomate level in QEEG and Neurotherapy, is a Board Certified Neurotherapy Instructor and a Certified Biofeedback Practitioner.
Other Products by Leslie Sherlin