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1999 Winter Brain Meeting

held February 5-9 in Palm Springs

Plenary Session abstracts & Workshop Descriptions

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An update on the recent changes of FDA regulations as it relates to Biofeedback manufacturers & users.

Dr. Anand Akerkar Alan P. Schwartz
mdi Consultants, Inc. Great Neck, NY
516-482-9001 516-4820186(fax)

The Biofeedback therapies and the industry itself has always been regarded as a "black sheep" by the FDA. Could it be that the FDA just doesn’t understand the concept of the biofeedback therapies, or hasn’t taken the time to learn how it actually works. Maybe, is it that the biofeedback therapist and equipment manufacturers have made biofeedback into something other that what it really is, giving the FDA real concern on how it is sold and used. Well, no matter what you want to say about who is actually at fault, biofeedback and the FDA sometimes appear like water and oil, they just don’t mix well. With the present Congressional make up the FDA has been called the "friendly FDA" to the industry. The FDAMA of 1997 has put the FDA on notice to assure that it looks to reduce regulations on the medical device industry. The FDA has recently lost a court decision on "off label" information, there is going to be a new Commissioner appointed, the QSR with the Design Review is in full force and the 510(k) process is also under constant review. What does this all mean to the Biofeedback industry? This seminar will provide insight into the present FDA policies on the medical device industry with special emphasis on how it relates to the Biofeedback industry. Also covered will be the biofeedback product labeling requirements, the judgment against the FDA on off label use and the new guidelines that the FDA has provided on this and the how the new QSR and Design Review should be instituted by the biofeedback manufacturer. The seminar will also provide insight into the FDA 510(k) review process and the new 510(k) clearance guidelines, and how they can be of benefit to the biofeedback manufacturer. For the biofeedback companies who are marketing or want to market their instruments in the European Community, a review of the CE mark requirements and the ISO standards.

FDA Update
Dr. Anand Akerkar Alan P. Schwartz mdi Consultants, Inc. Great Neck, NY
516-482-9001 516-4820186(fax)

This two hour workshop for the Biofeedback industry will cover three areas, an FDA update, the 510(k) process and GMP compliance as it relates to the Biofeedback Industry.

Topic 1. An FDA update
The biofeedback industry is one that has never been looked upon by the US FDA lightly. This review will concentrate on the present FDA’s position to the biofeedback industry, the FDA’s policy on labeling and off label use, the internet police and the present regulatory policies.

Topic 2. The 510(k) process – Original, Special or Abbreviated
An update on 510(k) strategies. This part will focus on the 510(k) process providing an update on the FDA 510(k) process, the three types of 510(k)s, third party review process as well as what is required in your strategic planning and 510(k) submission.

Topic 3. The FDA QSR(gmp) vs. ISO 9000– is these Quality Systems the same?
The US FDA has the QSR and the European Community has the ISO9000, in reality aren’t these two quality systems the same? Well, there is a case for their similarities but when you get down the basis of how these systems are audited they are completely different. This session will show you how each system is the same and different as well as provide you insight in how the systems are audited and the possible ramifications if non-compliances are found as well as the US FDA’s review of third party inspections for GMP compliance.

PS: Is Neurofeedback Treatment Effective ? You Bet Your QEEG it is !
Elsa Baehr, Ph.D.

The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate the usefulness of the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) in planning therapy and in evaluating the effects of neurofeedback treatment. The client , who was ten years, eight months old at the beginning of therapy, is the oldest of three children in an intact family. He had a mild closed head injury when he was six years old . In first grade he had difficulty reading, and sustaining his attention in t the classroom . His teachers noted poor organizational skills and difficulty in conceptualizing his thoughts and writing them down. His parents were concerned with his low grades in language arts, and his behavioral problems. He was defiant at home and procrastinated about doing his homework. He loved sports, and excelled in tennis. He was medicated with Welbrutrin for depression and anxiety when he was eight years old. His parents found him greatly improved on the medication. He discontinued the Welbrutrin and started on a course of 5mg Methylphenidate (Ritalin) when he was ten years old.

Mark was evaluated by Nancy White, PhD in Texas in November 1996
He was diagnosed by Dr. White as having an attention deficit disorder. He was referred to NeuroQuest, Inc. for treatment when he returned to Illinois. He was ten years 8 months old at that time. .

The participant was a ten year eight month old boy of average intelligence, who was in the fifth grade in a public school. He was taking 5mg of Methylhenidate daily during the course of therapy. He attended a learning development program in his school, but had no prior experience with neurofeedback.

The neurofeedback sessions were conducted using either the Lexicore Neurosearch 24 equipment or the Autogen A620 equipment. Pre treatment assessment, administered by Dr. White included the visual TOVA continuous performance test to evaluate variables such as inattention, impulsivity, response time and variability, the Attention Deficit Disorder Symptom Checklist and a QEEG. Post treatment assessment included the TOVA test and a QEEG. A Comparison was made between the pre and post TOVA and pre and post QEEG .

A course of neurotherapy was planned using the QEEG as a basis for treatment. At the time of his initial evaluation the QEEG data was processed by Lexicore’s Datalex, method. Both the pre and post therapy QEEGs were processed on a Lexicor 24 channel brain mapper. The post QEEG was analyzed using thee NeuroRep V3.0 reporting system, Both systems utilized the Thatcher Reference Database. The incidence of abnormalities (Z scores greater than chance at p<0.25 ) of coherence, phase, amplitude asymmetry and relative power, were measured. The data used was obtained by recoding a ten minute segment of data, eyes closed. The material was then artifacted by visual analysis and a minimum of 60 seconds was then subjected to the computerize program analysis. A report was generated which outlined Z score deviations from the reference database.
Mark was given 35 neurofeedback sessions over a period of six months. Each session lasted approximately 50 minutes. All sessions were conducted with eyes open. Relaxation techniques to help him reduce tension producing EMG. Seventeen sessions were devoted to reducing the theta/beta ratio at CZ. Thirteen sessions focused on increasing coherence in delta and theta brainwave frequency ranges at six different sites, and five sessions were aimed at reducing phase in the alpha brainwave frequency at three different sites. Audio- visual stimulation, utilizing Mind Gear equipment, was used during two sessions.

Results and Discussion:
The objectives of therapy were reached. The theta/beta ratio was reduced from 3.43 to 1.48. Coherence was increased at all six sites in both the delta and theta brainwave frequency ranges, and phase was increased , but not to a significant degree at the three
sites .

A comparison of the pre and post therapy visual TOVA standard test scores shows significant improvement in errors of commission (impulsivity), response time and variability1 A comparison of the pre and post QEEG shows that the negative EEG coherence scores, which occurred bilaterally in the frontal-temporal and frontal parietal regions and in the right hemisphere in the temporal-occipital connections, were absent in the post treatment QEEG Negative EEG coherence Z scores may indicate reduced functional connectivity. The absence of these negative Z scores implies that connections may have been made in these regions. This finding is consistent with increase in coherence scores . The pre-QEEG Z scores in phase were deviant from the reference data base in the right hemisphere in three sites. One to three Z score deviations could occur by chance and are not considered significant. The phase deviation occurring at T6-O2 occurred in both the pre and post TOVA tests.

At the conclusion of therapy his parents reported that Mark was functioning better at home. He was more cooperative, and he was more willing to do his homework on time. His grades had improved in school. Confirmation of his improvement came from Mark himself when he asked his father how old he was when he started to like reading Because of his progress, his parents wondered if the medication could be eliminated. . The TOVA test was used to evaluate the effect of Ritalin on the test variables. Figure 3 shows that response time and variability were significantly improved with the use of medication. It was recommended that Mark continue with the medication for six months and then be re-evaluated. 2

The results support the hypothesis that the QEEG is a useful tool for help in planning neurotherapy treatment, and is a valid way of objectively assessing results of therapy.

1The normal range in Standard Scores is 85-115. Scores above 115 are better than average, and scores below 85 are less than average. When comparing two protocols a Standard Score change of 7.5 is considered significant.

2Mark did not return after six months because his family moved to Texas. A recent communication from his parents stated that Mark was attending a private school with high academic standards. He is doing excellent and is "meeting the challenge".

W9Y2 The Alpha Asymmetry Depression Protocol
Elsa Baehr, Ph.D. and Peter Rosenfeld, Ph.D.


1. The Relationship between mood disorders and asymmetry
A..Work of Davidson and Colleagues
B Work of Rosenfeld et al
C. Replication by Allen and Cavendar

2. Technical Details
A. The devt of a formula to define the A-score.
B. The Asymmetry Formula and Protocol.
C. Reference and electrode placement.

3. Rationale for Clinical Use of the Asymmetry Protocol
A. Normal and pathological differences in asymmetry
B Pathological asymmetry and separation in infancy
C. Heredity evidence of pathological asymmetry in adolescent females
D. Evidence that brainwave biofeedback is an effective to modify brain-wave
E. Evidence that brainwave changes are long lasting.

Clinical Use of The Asymmetry Protocol in Treating Depression

1 Technical Details
A.. Classification of Depressive Disorders
B. Characteristics of the depressive disorders studies in previous research
C. Characteristics of six subjects treated with the asymmetry protocol.

2. Procedures
A. Pre and Post therapy assessment measures
B Preparation of the client :Training in breathing techniques and autogenic relaxation techniques
C. Application of electrodes
D. Recording the data
E. Selecting displays and audio feedback
F Time allotment for brainwave biofeedback and psychotherapy

3. Psychological Factors Associated with Brainwave biofeedback Treatment
A. Changes in psychotherapeutic relationship when brainwave biofeedback is introduced in ongoing psychotherapy.
B. Negative factors in the clinical situation.
C. Abreactions during treatment
D. Temporary regression as reflected by asymmetry score and feeling state.
E. Psychotherapeutic interventions

4. Presentation of six case studies
A. Pre & post Beck Depression Scales & MMPI
B. Medication effects
C Behavioral Changes
D .Follow-up data

Demonstration Using the Asymmetry Protocol
A. Use of protocol on volunteer subject to demonstrate hook-up and procedures
B. Demonstration of effects of positive and negative thoughts on asymmetry.

Valdeane Brown
Optimal Functioning lecture
Advanced meeting lecture 21 nd 40 hz training.
4 hr Workshop on Biograph Basics
Brown, Valdeane W., Ph.D.

PS Interleaving 21 and 40 Hz Training For Peak Performance: How A Pair Can Beat A Full House (optimal functioning)
Brown, Valdeane W., Ph.D.

Most approaches to Peak Performance Training have been based on very complex paradigms. Differential placements, multiple training regimes, and arrays of adjunct procedures are combined in abstruse and arcane ways to promote what we call Optimal Flow and Function (OFF). Helping clients to Get OFF! does not need to be complex -- a simple pairing of two augments targets can do the job easily and quickly. You don’t need the "Full House" of other techniques to help clients access excellence.

This presentation describes the use of a new (21 Hz) and not often used (40 Hz) augment target to help the CNS reorganize optimally: i.e., in ways that allow us to come home to the present moment, where we can optimally flow and function. When the CNS reorganizes in terms of its underlying non-linear, dynamical structure, we lose the garbage in our own EEG: viz., the 3 & 5 Hz attractors, the 23-38 Hz hypervigilance of dredging and mulling, as well as other non-adaptive constrictions in the EEG. Whether we are Michael Jordan or not, we all have our own garbage to take out so we can flow most easily.

Fundamentals of Neurofeedback: The Period 3 Approach To CNS Functional Transformation (part of Foundations Course)
Brown, Valdeane W., Ph.D.

Clinical approaches to neurofeedback are often highly detailed and complex, leading the beginning- and even experienced practitioner, to feel less than adequate in treating the variety of disorders that walk through the clinical door.

Such complex treatment protocols stem from a viewpoint which places disorder at the hub of our interventions- a "sickness based" model which, much like western medicine, assumes disorders are discrete entities necessitating different and distinct treatment protocols. Under this model, the challenge is to discover the "right" treatment which is also likely to be "wrong" for another disorder.

The powerful yet simple strategies to be offered in this presentation stem from a way of working that places self-regulation, not disorder, at its center. We call this paradigm the Period 3 Approach. Neurofeedback is unparalleled as a vehicle for providing the brain with what it works with best- information. Given appropriate information the brain begins to self-regulate more effectively and efficiently. When this happens, a myriad of apparently disparate symptoms drop away. It doesn’t matter if you are talking about anxiety, depression, immune system dysfunction or pain- it is, after all, all the same nervous system.

Participants will be presented with a method of intervention standard for all individuals (yes, you read that right!), with the treatment emphasis being adjusted according to real time "reading of your data" as well as client symptoms. As such you are not treating according to pre-determined rules of thumb so much as where the client actually is at that time. As the client’s central nervous system becomes increasingly normalized, symptoms recede. Clients will be able to tolerate training across all frequencies regardless of presenting complaint. Inability to tolerate training at any particular frequency (e.g. beta) demonstrates that the brain is not yet appropriately self-regulating, rather than an intrinsic inability to tolerate beta per se.

Vital to the safety and success of this approach is the use of appropriate inhibits. These will be detailed as well as sequences of augments. You will also discover:
How to train two very different attentional states on the left and right side of the brain simultaneously, increasing the power of your interventions.
How "Theta" is actually composed of three targets frequencies (3, 5 & 7 Hz) each with its own role in health and dysfunction
How to target augment frequencies precisely and sequentially to treat even the most challenging clients in a safe manner
The differential effects of training Alpha (8-12 Hz), SMR (12-15 Hz), Low Beta (15-18 Hz), Aura (19-23 Hz), Peripheral Warmth (26-30 Hz) and Shear (38-42 Hz) Rhythms
The use of FFT and direct digital filtering systems and their relative roles in clinical decision making and data analysis
How dysfunction is better characterized in terms of discrete attractors within the spectrum, whereas functionality is better captured as the ability to fluidly shift amplitudes throughout the spectrum.
That the CNS can not be trained optimally with linear procedures, but requires the use of non-linear, dynamical control mechanisms.
That the CNS is non-linear, so it is designed to process and respond effectively to incredibly dense stimuli arrays in the midst of very noisy environments. Thus, feedback can be complex, differential, syncopated and simultaneous.
The Period 3 Approach is equally applicable to remediation of symptoms as well as training for personal growth, spiritual development and optimal (peak) performance. Its simple and straightforward methods will particularly resonate with:
providers interested in appealing to the "personal growth" market as a means of reducing dependency on managed care.
providers who want to ensure rapid and powerful results while effectively eliminating unwanted side effects.
providers challenged by a particularly diverse range of client problems, and
entry level neurofeedback practitioners who are excited but confused about how best to proceed with development of their own clinical practice.
PSK Non-Linear Data Analysis And 21 Hz Augmentation Training
Brown, Valdeane W., Ph.D.

The question of the appropriate mathematical tools for analyzing real-time EEG has recently become more complex and chaotic - and that is the good news. As Non-Linear Dynamical Time-Series analysis has gained more precision and acceptance, it has demonstrated interesting trends in EEG patterns as an effect of Neurofeedback - trends which could not be seen through older, linear techniques.

Even though Non-Linear Dynamical Analysis may seem more difficult, abstruse or challenging - especially to the mathematically challenged among us - clinical decision making becomes straight forward and easy. Simply being able to conceptualize a system as Non-linear has one particularly important implication for Neurofeedback: Non-linear dynamical systems can be influenced or "controlled" through the use of four distinct procedures, regardless of the specific organization, parameters or effects of the particular system being controlled. The implications of this for Neurofeedback are profound.

Using Non-linear dynamical control procedures, simple interventions can lead to profound shifts, and these shifts can be understood functionally, with no particular need for neuroanatomical localization. The recent ascendancy of wide band suppression paradigms at various sites represent one such case, as does the utility of a new augment target: viz. 21 Hz center frequency.

In this presentation, non-linear dynamical techniques will be used to demonstrate the increased and systematic spectral effects of the 21 Hz center augment, within a "quasi" wide band suppression paradigm. This direct application of Non-Linear Dynamical Control Procedures has been called the Period 3 Approach, and has broad application across the range of clinical disorders with which Neurofeedback is used. Moreover, the principles underlying this approach can be used with any kind of equipment. Thus, a seemingly complex tool (viz. NLD mathematics), can lead to a simple clinical approach for practitioners that works across the entire range of disorders that respond to Neurofeedback.

WS4 The Use Of Spectral Analysis To Fine Tune Neurofeedback: Recognizing And Utilizing Patterns In Frequency Mirror Displays
Brown, Valdeane W., Ph.D.

Clinical Neurofeedback holds great promise for many conditions; however, the protocols have been complex, confusing and even contradictory. Adding another level of complexity is the notion that QEEG must precede Neurofeedback. In this presentation you will learn to cut through the hype, dross and hubris with a clear and comprehensive approach to this exciting treatment, effective across all conditions that respond to Neurofeedback. You will learn how to use real-time spectral analysis of clinical EEG to particularize your interventions and maximize their clinical effect. Learning to recognize distinctive patterns in the spectral array, as well as how the entire spectrum responds to various kinds of training, will allow you to extend, solidify and simplify clinical decision making: you will actually know exactly what is happening with your client moment to moment. You will see how Neurofeedback can be used to treat ADD, Depression, Anxiety, PTSD, Substance Abuse, Sleep Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury. You will also learn how to train for Peak Performance, all using a single, comprehensive paradigm: the Period 3 Approach to CNS Functional Transformation. This course is intended to develop clinical acumen and efficacy regardless of the equipment or approach you currently use.

PSK Recent Advances in the Neuro and Behavioral Sciences: Implications after central nervous system damage for Biofeedback and Neurofeedback applications to stroke, head injury, cerebral palsy and spinal cord injury.
Bernard S. Brucker, Ph.D., ABPP

University of Miami School of Medicine In the past decade there have been significant discoveries in both the neuro and behavioral sciences which have made a dramatic contribution in understanding the central nervous system, in terms of its structure, function, and recovery after trauma and disease. This presentation will provide an understanding of the structure and function of the central nervous system based on the recent discoveries from the neuro and behavioral sciences. In addition, it will provide an understanding of the mechanisms of trauma and disease, as well as the mechanism for subsequent repair of central nervous system structure. Further, this presentation will explain the latest models of plasticity in both the brain and spinal cord and the role of behavioral techniques in plasticity. Examples of operant conditioning based biofeedback applications for restoring function after central nervous system damage through plasticity models, will be presented with specific applications to stroke, head injury, cerebral palsy and spinal cord injury. Finally, new and exciting areas of current research on neuro recovery and CNS transplant will be presented along with their implications for biofeedback, neurofeedback and behavioral applications.

At the conclusion of this presentation participants will be able to:
Understand the structure and function of the central nervous system
Become familiar with recent neuroscience discoveries related to neuro plasticity
Understand operant conditioning as the basis of biofeedback
Understand the important variables in physiological measurements and equipment for biofeedback and neurofeedback applications
I. Understand the traditional neurological and operant conditioning theoretical basis of central nervous system recovery
Understand the procedures and selection criteria for biofeedback applications to patients with central nervous system damage
Structural definition of the central nervous system
Functional definition of the central nervous system
Implications from neuroscience for structural recovery after central nervous system damage
The nature of structural damage to the central nervous system
Traditional models of recover
Repair of central nervous system tissue
Replacement of central nervous system cells
Central nervous system plasticity
Central nervous system cell duplication
Traditional theories of plasticity
Recent discoveries related to the extent of CNS plasticity
The role of learning in CNS plasticity
Operant conditioning as the basis of plasticity
Definition of operant conditioning
Establishing an operant
Shaping procedures
Application of operant conditioning for establishing learned control of physiological responses
Biofeedback as a specific behavioral approach
Important measurement and feedback variables for effective biofeedback applications
The use of microprocessor technology in biofeedback applications
Operant conditioning based biofeedback applications for CNS recovery
Neurological theories of CNS disability
Traditional neuromuscular assessment
Traditional neuromuscular rehabilitation
Principles of operant conditioning based biofeedback applications in rehabilitation of CNS damage
Biofeedback applications to stroke
Etiology of stroke
Biofeedback for increasing voluntary motor neuron control
Biofeedback for controlling spasticity
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment applications
Criteria for patient selection
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity and long term recovery
Biofeedback applications to head injury
Etiology of neurological damage in head injury
Increasing motor neuron recruitment
Decreasing spasticity
Decreasing ataxia
Increasing coordinated motor neuron recruitment for increased function
Cognitive deficit tissues
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment approaches
Criteria for patient selection
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity and long term recovery
Biofeedback applications to cerebral palsy
Etiology of cerebral palsy
Traditional approaches
Behavioral approaches
Biofeedback for increasing coordination of motor neuron recruitment
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment approaches
Biofeedback and surgery
Cognitive issues
Patient selection criteria
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity
Biofeedback and behavioral applications to spinal cord injury
Traditional assessment
EMG measurements
Functional vs Neurologically complete injuries
Theories of recovery and neuro plasticity
Biofeedback applications to increase voluntary motor neuron recruitment
EMG biofeedback combined with traditional treatment
Patient selection criteria
Clinical effect
Future Direction
Advances in microprocessor developments
Advances in treatment procedures
C. Advances from the neuroscience’s
Summary and discussion

WS-4 Biofeedback and Behavioral Applications to Rehabilitation: Variables for Successful Functional Outcome
Bernard S. Brucker, Ph.D., ABPP,
University of Miami School of Medicine

This workshop will provide a comprehensive understanding of the issues related to recovery after central nervous system damage and disease and the potential role of behavioral approaches in rehabilitation such as biofeedback and neurofeedback. More specifically, this workshop will present an understanding of the structure and function of the central nervous system and mechanisms of damage from trauma and disease. Further, it will present the issues involved with rehabilitation and the approaches taken from traditional therapeutic methods. It will also explain some of the recent findings from the neuro and behavioral sciences and their implications for recovery after central nervous system damage. This workshop will focus on the behavioral basis of biofeedback and neurofeedback applications to rehabilitation and the neurophysiological principles on which they work. Specific variables for successful functional applications in stroke, brain injury, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury and sports medicine will be presented. Finally, areas of current research in the neuroscience’s for neuro recovery and central nervous system transplant will be discussed along with their implications for biofeedback and neurofeedback.

A. Definition and misconceptions of biofeedback
B.Theoretical principles of biofeedback

Operant conditioning as the basis of biofeedback
A. Definition of operant conditioning
B. Establishing an operant
C. Shaping procedures

Application of operant conditioning for establishing learned control of physiological responses

Important measurement and feedback variables for effective biofeedback applications
The use of microprocessor technology in biofeedback applications

Biofeedback application for rehabilitation
Neurological theories of disability
Traditional neuromuscular assessment
Traditional neuromuscular rehabilitation
Principles of operant conditioning based biofeedback applications in rehabilitation

Variables for successful biofeedback treatment
Understanding the etiology
Establishing the physiological response to be learned
Establishing the method of measurement
Determining the feasibility of learned voluntary control
Establishing functional outcome goals
Applying operant conditioning procedures

Biofeedback applications to stroke
Etiology of stroke
Biofeedback for increasing voluntary motor neuron control
Biofeedback for controlling spasticity in synergistic patterns
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment applications
Criteria for patient selection
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity and long term recovery

Biofeedback applications to head injury
Etiology of neurological damage in head injury
Increasing motor neuron recruitment
Decreasing spasticity
Decreasing ataxia
Increasing coordinated motor neuron recruitment for increased function
Cognitive deficit issues
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment approaches
Criteria for patient selection
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity and long term recovery

Biofeedback applications to cerebral palsy
Etiology of cerebral palsy
Traditional approaches
Behavioral approaches
Biofeedback for increasing coordination of motor neuron recruitment
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment approaches
Biofeedback and surgery
Cognitive issues
Patient selection criteria
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity

Biofeedback applications to spinal cord injury
Traditional assessment
EMG measurement
Functionally vs. neurologically complete injuries
Theories of recovery
Biofeedback applications to increase voluntary motor neuron recruitment
EMG biofeedback combined with traditional treatment
Patient selection criteria clinical effect
Clinical effect
Implications for spinal cord plasticity and long term recovery

Biofeedback application to sports medicine
Theoretical basis
Increasing peak performance
Treatment of sports injuries resulting in soft tissue damage
Treatment of chondromalatia and patella dislocation

Increasing effectiveness of biofeedback applications
Understanding etiology of the symptom
Choosing the correct operant
Appropriate measurement and feedback apparatus
Appropriate use of operant conditioning paradigms

Future Direction
Advances in microprocessor developments
Advances in treatment procedures
Advances from the neuroscience’s

XIII. Summary and Discussion
Biofeedback and Behavioral Applications to Rehabilitation:
Variables for Successful Functional Outcome Workshop
Bernard S. Brucker, Ph.D., ABPP,
University of Miami School of Medicine
Definition and misconceptions of biofeedback
Theoretical principles of biofeedback
Operant conditioning as the basis of biofeedback
Definition of operant conditioning
Establishing an operant
Shaping procedures
Application of operant conditioning for establishing learned control of physiological responses
Important measurement and feedback variables for effective biofeedback applications
The use of microprocessor technology in biofeedback applications
Biofeedback application for rehabilitation
Neurological theories of disability
Traditional neuromuscular assessment
Traditional neuromuscular rehabilitation
Principles of operant conditioning based biofeedback applications in rehabilitation
Variables for successful biofeedback treatment
Understanding the etiology
Establishing the physiological response to be learned
Establishing the method of measurement
Determining the feasibility of learned voluntary control
Establishing functional outcome goals
Applying operant conditioning procedures
Biofeedback applications to stroke
Etiology of stroke
Biofeedback for increasing voluntary motor neuron control
Biofeedback for controlling spasticity in synergistic patterns
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment applications
Criteria for patient selection
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity and long term recovery
Biofeedback applications to head injury
Etiology of neurological damage in head injury
Increasing motor neuron recruitment
Decreasing spasticity
Decreasing ataxia
Increasing coordinated motor neuron recruitment for increased function
Cognitive deficit issues
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment approaches
Criteria for patient selection
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity and long term recovery
Biofeedback applications to cerebral palsy
Etiology of cerebral palsy
Traditional approaches
Behavioral approaches
Biofeedback for increasing coordination of motor neuron recruitment
Biofeedback combined with traditional treatment approaches
Biofeedback and surgery
Cognitive issues
Patient selection criteria
Clinical effect
Implications for brain plasticity
Biofeedback applications to spinal cord injury
Traditional assessment
EMG measurement
Functionally vs. neurologically complete injuries
Theories of recovery
Biofeedback applications to increase voluntary motor neuron recruitment
EMG biofeedback combined with traditional treatment
Patient selection criteria clinical effect
Clinical effect
Implications for spinal cord plasticity and long term recovery
Biofeedback application to sports medicine
Theoretical basis
Increasing peak performance
Treatment of sports injuries resulting in soft tissue damage
Treatment of chondromalatia and patella dislocation
Increasing effectiveness of biofeedback applications
Understanding etiology of the symptom
Choosing the correct operant
Appropriate measurement and feedback apparatus
Appropriate use of operant conditioning paradigms
Future Direction
Advances in microprocessor developments
Advances in treatment procedures
Advances from the neuroscience’s

XIII. Summary and Discussion
Effects of AVS on Academic Performance
Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D*, John Jordy, M.A.,**
Helen Kogan Budzynski, Ph.D.,* & Jean Tang, M.S.*

Preliminary work with the Biolight bio-driven AVS (audio-visual stimulation) convinced us that in a single session, peak alpha frequency and the hi/lo alpha band magnitude ratio (11-13)/(7-9) could be at least temporarily increased. Prior research by other investigators had shown that brighter students appeared to have faster peak alpha frequencies and higher alpha ratios. Giannitrapani’s research in particular showed a positive correlation between IQ and narrow band 13 Hz power. We then attempted to use this technique over an extended period with university students who had sought help from the Counseling Center because of difficulties they were having in school. The Biolight device was used by the students for a period of 15 minutes each day. Pre-post PSPs (Psychophysiological Stress Profiles were performed along with the IVA continuous performance test, certain IQ subtests and the POMS at each session. Grade point averages (GPAs) were collected for three quarters: Fall ’97 (pre), Winter ’98 (during) and Spring ’98 (post). Training consisted of 30 15 minute sessions, approximately 5 per week. A control group received the usual counseling help but no Biolight use. Eight subjects in each group completed the study and allowed their GPAs to be given to us for the 3 quarters. A t-test revealed a p = 0.004 for the test of pre-post differences in GPA between the experimentals and controls. Certain EEG parameters showed significant changes as predicted.

Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D. Affiliate Professor, Department of Psychosocial and Community Health, Box 357263 University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7263.
John Jordy, M.A. ..Counselor, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA
Helen Kogan Budzynski, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, Department of Psychosocial & Community Health, Box 357263 .University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7263.
Jean Tang, M.S. Grad student School of Nursing University of Washington.

WS2 Improving Cognitive Functioning in the Elderly"
Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D., Helen Kogan Budzynski, Ph.D., & Elsa Baehr, Ph.D.

As the large baby boomer population swells the ranks of the elderly in the next decade the need for programs of cognitive remediation increases as well. Most of these individuals realize that they may live into their 80s
and 90s and may need to continue working well past the conventional retirement age of 55-65. To maintain a satisfactory level of job performance, competing with younger co-workers in particular, and enjoying life in general, they need to keep their cognitive faculties as sharp as possible. This workshop will feature background information, a long list of references, EEG signatures, the neuroanatomy of memory as defined by
new fMRI studies, stress factors affecting memory, testing methods, neurofeedback protocols, light/sound augmentation, and finally, a discussion of case studies.

Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D., Affiliate Professor, Department of Psychosocial and Community Health, Box 357263, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7263.
Helen Kogan Budzynski, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Department of Psychosocial and Community Health, Box 357262, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7263.
Elsa Baehr, Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, School of Medicine, Department of Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Panel Discussion
In Search of a Common Thread: Exploring the Neurophysiologal and Energetic Base for the New "Power Therapies" used in Treatment of Trauma.

Panel discussion. Moderator: Patricia Carrington, Ph.D. Panelists: Gary Craig, Michael Gismondi, Carol Schneider, Robert Scaer)

A mass of anecdotal evidence now supports the effectiveness of the new meridian-based and laterality-based psychotherapies for the treatment of PTSD, phobias, and other emotional disorders. For practical reasons, experimental evidence has lagged behind clinical observation in this area, but many health practitioners who have been exposed to these new methods honor them as the beginning of a major paradigm shift in the healing field.

Both traumatic incidents and the more subtle traumatic experiences presented in ordinary psychotherapy, have been yielding dramatically to these new "energy" or "power therapies" -- and these methods work extraordinarily rapidly in comparison to our traditional approaches. Clearly it’s time to take a serious look at them. We need to find out what the various power therapies have in common, and then just what mode of research is needed to identify the forces actually in operation here.

This panel’s agenda is not to evaluate the scientific evidence about these new methods, the data is far too limited as yet for any rigorous evaluation.

Instead, the panel will be exploring something more basic, more intriguing -- the HOW and the WHY of the unprecedented effects these techniques are producing. Gathered from a wide base in the traditional sciences and the new field of energy medicine, the panel will search for common threads that run through the various "power therapies", for when found, these common elements will become pathways for discovery and invention in all the fields involved.

They may then facilitate our basic knowledge of the properties of healing and perhaps unleash a combined and unified curative power for the future health of this world.

Patricia Carrington

Please, think about this idea before you respond.

Would it be useful for you and your work if you could identify some of the major bugs in your latest research idea through obtaining preliminary (noncontrolled) data within 24 to 48 hours, through the Internet? And suppose that within that same time frame you were also able to collect critiques and positive suggestions from outstanding colleagues in your field, some of whom you might not even have known?

A method for testing out research designs and generating research leads via the Internet is now being piloted by the EFT Email list, a high quality Email group concerned with the meridian-based "energy therapies". The group is now testing approaches to web-based research, a concept still in its infancy but clearly of potential relevance to other disciplines as well.

In this plenary session, the possibilities of such a procedure will be illustrated by requesting audience participation in a brief, informative experiment using a response-questionnaire. Data collected at the start of the session will be tallied during Carrington’s formal presentation, and a summary of the "findings" shared at the end of this session. This will allow for firsthand experience in how preliminary (noncontrolled) data can be used to refine a research design and generate research leads. The example used here will be that of a new concept in the energy field, "Energy Chords, but the emphasis will be on how "Cyber Research" might be applied to other disciplines as well.

In the talk, Carrington will address the manner in which we can use a group of research participants and colleagues who participate in an existing or newly created Email list, to refine research and generate new lines of inquiry at unprecedented speed. The advantages as well as the challenges of such an approach will be explored, and its exportability to other fields such as neurofeedback, biofeedback or behavioral medicine will be discussed with the participation of the audience.

In the final portion of the presentation, the audience wil be asked to brainstorm to identify potential dependent variables in neurofeedback, QEEG, energy therapies, etc.which can be studied using this instant internet method.

WS2 The Use of Clinically Standardized Meditation with Biofeedback Training and Behavioral Interventions
Patricia Carrington, Ph.D.

Problems of compliance beset the practioner seeking to obtain physiological or behavioral change. Supplementing in-office training with a self-regulation technique is one option which can be helpful but only if that technique is highly self-reinforcing, requires minimal effort on the part of trainees, and is trouble free.
In 1979, under the aegis of the Medical Department of New York Telephone Company, Dr. Carrington developed her now widely used recorded method of meditation training, Clinically Standardized Meditation (CSM) . This technique adjusts flexibly to suit individual patient needs and lifestyles, shows high compliance and reports excellent user satisfaction. It has been used extensively in medical and organizational settings worldwide and is the method featured in Carrington’s new book which details the clinical use of the modern meditation techniques (The Book of Meditation, Element Books, Ltd., 1998)

Attendees at this workshop will have a chance to sample the CSM meditation method for themselves and learn how to apply it in clinical practice. Topics covered include indications and contraindications for the use of CSM; special problems encountered when teaching it to selected clinical populations; ways of varying the practice to suit individual needs; anticipation and handling of common problems encountered by trainees, and additional topics of special interest to clinicians and researchers.

PS Optimizing Brain Balance with Nutritional Supplements: use of vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and essential fatty acids to restore normal brain chemistry for such conditions as anxiety, depression, ADD, and PMS .Hyla Cass

WS2 Nutritional Approaches to Mental Health:
Hyla Cass

As we already know from the field of EEG diagnosis and treatment, disorders of mood, memory, and behavior often reflect underlying physical or metabolic problems, undetected and under-diagnosed by mainstream physicians. With a complementary medical approach, however, these imbalances can be successfully diagnosed and treated, using nutritional supplements such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs and natural hormones. This can be successfully combined with neurofeedback techniques, and even medication when appropriate, for optimal results.

Moreover, the decline of health vitality, and mental function with age is not inevitable. Nutrients and hormones can be used for anti-aging, rejuvenation, and optimal performance. In addition to the use of smart drugs and nutrients, levels of hormones, including DHEA, pregnenolone, testosterone, and growth hormone, in both men and women, can be measured and then supplemented accordingly.

This talk will outline my clinical approach to diagnosing and treating such imbalances and deficiencies.
Common Presenting Problems

" anxiety " fatigue " depression " impaired memory and concentration
" insomnia " sexual dysfunction or decreased interest " weight gain

Possible Underlying Causes:
" hypoglycemia, diabetes
" anemia
" food and chemical sensitivities
" hormone imbalance/deficiency (e.g. thyroid, estrogen, progesterone, adrenal)
" chronic fatigue syndrome, including Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus,
candida, parasites)
" toxicity (heavy metals, chemicals, metabolic wastes)
" deficiencies (vitamins, minerals, amino acids)
" malabsorption/poor digestion

" history -- questionnaire
" laboratory studies

" Diet: add or remove certain foods

" Exercise: including walking (aerobic), toning exercises, yoga, or tai chi

" Stress reduction techniques: meditation, yoga, biofeedback

" Nutritional supplements:

" Vitamins, minerals, herbs, enzymes, other co-factors

" Amino acids, especially phosphatidylserine and acetyl-l-carnitine

" Hormones: thyroid, adrenal, DHEA, pregnenolone, progesterone, estrogen, testosterone, melatonin, human growth hormone

Suggested Reading

Natural Remedies/Alternative Medicine:
" Hyla Cass, M.D., St. John's Wort: Nature's Blues Buster, N.Y.: Avery, 1998
and Kava: Nature's Answer to Stress, Anxiety, and Insomnia: Prima, 1998
" James F. Balch and Phyllis A. Balch, Prescription for Nutritional Healing N.Y. :
Avery Publishing Group, Inc., 1990. ($16.95)
" Broda Barnes, Hypothyroidism, The Unsuspected Illness, Harper and Row, 1976
" The Burton Goldberg Group, Alternative Medicine, The Definitive Guide,
Guyallup, WA: Future Medicine Publishing, Inc., 1994. ($59.95)
" M. Murray, J. Pizzorno, Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Prima, 1994
" Devi Nambudripad, Say Good-bye to Illness, 6714 Beach Blvd., Buena Park, CA,
90621: Delta Publishing, 1993 (714-523-8900)
" M. Rosenbaum, M. Susser, Solving the Puzzle of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
" William Crook, M.D.,The Yeast Connection, Professional Books

Women’s Health/Hormones:
" Marcus Laux and Christine Conrad, Natural Woman, Natural Menopause,
Harper Collins, 1997
" John Lee, M.D.,What your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause,
Warner Books, 1996
" Christiane Northrup, M.D., Women's Bodies, Women's Wisdom, Bantam, 1994

" William Regelson, M.D., The Superhormone Promise, Simon & Schuster, 1996
" Ronald Klatz and Robert Goldman, Stop the Aging Clock, 1996
" Ronald Klatz, Grow Young with HGH, 1997
" Stephen Cherniske, The DHEA Breakthrough, Ballantine Books, 1997
" Jean Carper, Stop Aging Now!, Harper Collins, 1995

" John Taylor, Helping Your Hyperactive/Attention Deficit Child:
" Mary Ann Block: No More Ritalin:Treating ADHD Without Drugs
" †J. Reichenberg-Ullman & R. Ullman, Ritalin Free Kids

Brain Nutrients:
" C. Germano, J. Lombard The Brain Wellness Plan : Breakthrough Medical, Nutritional, and Immune-Boosting Therapies, 1997
" R. Hedaya, Understanding Biological Psychiatry , Norton, 1996
" W. Dean, J. Morgenthaler, Smart Drugs and Nutrients : How to Improve Your Memory and Increase Your Intelligence Using the Latest Discoveries in Neuroscience, 1991, and Smart Drugs II : The Next Gen
Biographical Data

Hyla Cass, M.D., is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, and the author of the best-selling St. John's Wort: Nature's Blues Buster (Avery, 1998) and Kava: Nature's Answer to Stress, Anxiety, and Insomnia (Prima, 1998. Integrating nutritional medicine with psychiatry in her clinical practice, she has been treating patients successfully with a variety of supplements for many years. Her areas of expertise include stress reduction, women's health (including natural hormone therapy), and natural treatments for ADD, ADHD, addictions, anxiety disorders, and depression.

A noted speaker, consultant, and educator in the areas of complementary medicine, psychiatry, and personal growth, Dr. Cass is also a corporate and media consultant, and contributes to numerous books and journals. She has been quoted in many publications, including the Los Angeles Times, Time Magazine, and People Magazine, and has written for Psychiatric News," "Herbs for Health", "Natural Health", "Let's Live", and the "Journal of Longevity Research." A graduate of the University of Toronto School of Medicine, she interned at Los Angeles County - USC Medical Center, and completed a psychiatric residency at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center/UCLA.

Steady State Evoked Potentials -
A New Channel for EEG Biofeedback?
Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D.

This talk will consider the basic mechanisms of steady-state visual and auditory evoked potentials, and explore their possible use as a biofeedback modality. When visual or auditory stimuli are presented at rates between 2 and 20 per second, the resulting evoked potentials can be easily measured in real time, and can be used to provide biofeedback information in any of a wide range of formats.

All that is necessary is to provide a controlled stimulus at a specific frequency and to perform appropriate filtering on the EEG, to provide a real-time measurement of the brain's response to the stimulus. By providing this information to the subject in real time, it is possible to create a biofeedback system in which the individual learns to self-regulate the brain's response to sensory stimulation. By judicious choice of stimulation and filtering frequencies, specific brain pathways and mechanisms can be measured, hence trained.

At the current time, this method has been explored in limited ways. Existing systems are applied primarily to the monitoring or assessment of attention, or to the development of brain-controlled systems. There has been limited study of evoked potential biofeedback as a training modality. A theoretical and practical rationale for pursuing this potentially fruitful area will be presented and described.

WS2 BrainMaster Practicum
Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D.

This workshop presents the practical side of using the BrainMaster EEG system, with an emphasis on biofeedback applications. The BrainMaster is an open-architecture, shareware hardware and software design that has grown steadily since 1995.

The project uses the internet as a primary means to sharing technical and and applications information. A growing base of contributed software designs are available, providing a wide range of new capabilities.

The system is an extremely versatile, general- purpose EEG monitor with many types of sound, graphics, and biofeedback control features. It can be used for conventional biofeedback for clinical as well as peak-performance applications. It can also be configured for novel types of biofeedback, making it
useful for exploration and research studies.

The system also has an open programming interface that allows users to write add-on software in C, C++, Visual Basic, and Pascal. Examples of user-contributed
software will be shown.

The workshop will include tutorial demonstrations of the BrainMaster system on volunteer subjects, in a variety of applications. Participants will be walked through how to use the BrainMaster, add new trainees, set up screens and biofeedback protocols, and review EEG data. There will also be an introduction to the programming interface for writing third-party software.

Dr. Collura is a biomedical engineer with over 25 years of R&D experience in computer hardware and software, and digital EEGsystems. He is a consultant specializing in medical instrumentation design and development, and is the founder of the BrainMaster project.

PS: EFT: A Paradigm Shift: "We are on the Ground Floor of A Healing Highrise"
PS: Using EFT for Optimal Functioning

WS4: EFT 1 Foundational EFT
WS (all day) EFT 2 Advanced EFT
Gary Craig
P.O. Box 398
The Sea Ranch, CA 95497
707-785-2848 fax 707-785-2600

EFT: We are on the Ground Floor of a Healing High Rise
EFT Founder and Presenter: Gary H. Craig,
P.O. Box 398, The Sea Ranch, CA 95497
(707) 785-2848,
Emotional Freedom Techniques(tm)

This hour long introduction to EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) will cover the theory and background behind this highly reliable healing procedure. You will see videotapes of actual cases interwoven in a dynamic presentation designed to acquaint you with one of the most dramatic healing discoveries of this century. This presentation also serves as an introduction to Gary Craig's workshops on February 7 (Foundational EFT: The Door to the new Healing High Rise) and February 10 (EFT: Advanced Procedures and the Art of Delivery).

Note: Gary Craig will send you a free hour long videotape displaying EFT in live sessions. You may wish to view it before the conference. You may choose between:

(1) "6 Days at the VA" which shows EFT being used to eliminate phobias, PTSD, intrusive thoughts, nightmares, addictive cravings and the like with our Vietnam Vets or

(2) "EFT Case Histories" which shows EFT being used to relieve a driving phobia, fear of mice & rats, chocolate cravings, rape trauma, shoulder pain, dyslexia and more.
You can order your tape off his web site at:
or call Gary Craig directly at: (707) 785-2848.

WS4 EFT: The Doorway to the new Healing High Rise
EFT Founder and Presenter: Gary H. Craig,

We are on the Ground Floor of a Healing High Rise and the "energy therapies" provide the elevator. They establish rapid and long lasting relief for almost every emotional issue and remove blocks to optimal performance. EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) is an entryway into this fascinating field.

Please be advised that EFT's impressive successes are the result of a major paradigm shift in this field. It is a psychological version of acupuncture (very gentle and does not require the use of needles) and is likely to violate the beliefs of most attendees.

This workshop will start with a grounding in the basics of EFT that will be thorough enough to allow participants to immediately (and successfully) apply EFT to themselves and clients. The rest of the workshop will be experiential as the entire audience will apply EFT to their own issues (in the privacy of their own minds, if they prefer). We will address trauma, physical discomforts and addictive cravings. If time allows, we will also apply it to phobias, guilt, grief, depression, fear of public speaking or anything else the audience requests.

To review writeups of a wide variety of EFT Case Histories as performed by numerous EFT professionals visit

WS full DAY EFT: Advanced Procedures and the Art of Delivery
EFT Founder and Presenter: Gary H. Craig

While EFT can be applied in a mechanical fashion with impressive results, even greater relief can be obtained by the artful delivery of these procedures. Volunteers from the audience will have the opportunity to work on any issue(s) they wish with Gary Craig, the founder of EFT. Even though personal privacy is completely respected in these live sessions, the volunteers will be able to experience the effects of EFT (even on lifelong, stubborn issues) while the audience will be able to ask questions about the details behind EFT and how it was applied. This is a rare interactive opportunity as the attendees will be able to "get behind the scenes" of one of the most fascinating discoveries of this century.

Attendance at the previous workshop, "EFT: the Doorway to the new Healing High Rise" on February 7 is highly recommended before attending this workshop. However, it is not required. A brief overview of the foundational concepts will be provided for newcomers at the opening.

Also Note: Gary Craig will send you a free hour long videotape displaying EFT in live sessions. You may wish to view it before the conference. See previous listing

What’s the Bottom Line?
Length: 20 Minutes
Mary Deits

Session: This talk is best suited for the Optimal Functioning meeting

Top performers give us a vision of the human potential possibilities. What are some of their characteristics that separate them from the average executive or performer? What effect do these characteristics have on the way we approach optimum performance work with them. Observations are based upon biofeedback and stress management sessions with top performers at the Canyon Ranch Spa in Tucson Arizona.

Mary Deits was Director of Biofeedback Services at Canyon Ranch for over 4 yrs. She worked with well-known corporate and subcabinet executives, as well as international entertainers. Currently she is the Clinical Director of Focused Technology.

The What & Why of Threshold Based Proportional Feedback
Length: 20 Minutes
Frank Deits

Most neurofeedback as commonly practiced is binary in nature. That is, a "reward" indication is given when some criteria is met. If beta is above threshold, an indicator comes on. If beta is below, the indicator is off.

There is no information as to whether beta is slightly above or greatly above threshold. Proportional feedback provides the missing information by modulating the feedback indication as a function of the signal level. With threshold based proportional feedback, visual and/or auditory feedback starts when the eeg signal is above threshold. As the signal increases the feedback changes in nature. The sound may become louder or more harmonic. A visual display may change color.

Proportional feedback has a more "natural" feeling. There is a sense of connection with the sound or light. Thresholds are not as critical as with binary.

Both binary and proportional feedback will be demonstrated.

Frank Deits is Technical Director of Focused Technology and designer of the F1000 Feedback Training System. He has extensive background in instrumentation and feedback systems used in the aerospace industry. Frank has 16 years experience as an electronics instructor at Idaho State
University and Pima Community College.

WS A Guide to the Neurodevelopmental "Power Therapies" And Their Use in The Treatment of PTSD and related Somatic Complaints
Presenters; Carol Schneider, Ph.D, and Mike Gismondi, MA, LPC

In this four-hour workshop, we will combine hands-on technique demonstration with psychobiological theory concerning the state-of-the-art psychotherapeutic treatment of trauma and related somatization disorders.
Learning Objectives

(1) Understand the significance and evolution of the Power Therapies, i.e., those new or little known trauma psychotherapy techniques that offer significant improvements over traditional methods in terms of the speed, depth and permanence of trauma symptom reduction while minimizing client retraumatization or destabilization. The original "Power Therapies" categorization was developed by traumatologist Dr. Charles Figley and involves four "cutting edge" trauma psychotherapy techniques, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Thought Field Therapy (an accupressure-based desensitization tool) , Traumatic Incident Reduction and Neurolingusitic Programming's Visual-Kinesthetic Dissociation. Protocols for all four methods will be reviewed.

(2) Achieve introductory-level working knowledge of both the techniques, their underlying theoretical rationale and suspected neurophysiological mechanisms of action.

(3) Learn Power Therapy integration strategies and explore their clinical utility.

(4) Become familiar with the concept of the Neurodevelopmental Power Therapy integration strategies, it's roots in the work of Allen Schore, Bruce Perry and Bessel Van der Kolk and it's implications for Neurotherapy and the Neurosciences as a whole.

(5) Review the field experiments of Dr. Schneider combining EMDR with the "crossover point" in alpha-theta training and the possible therapeutic/ scientific synergies between EEG Brainmapping and neurotherapy on the one hand and the neurodevelopmental power therapies on the other.

Michael Gismondi, MA, LPC Mr. Gismondi has been a psychotherapist since 1976, licensed as a Psychologist in 1982 and as a Licensed Professional Counselor in 1992. He has received graduate-level training in clinical and educational psychology, as well as Information Science, Artificial Intelligence and the modeling of human information processing. He was the lead organizer of the first Power Therapies Integration Conference in Denver (1997) and was more recently asked by Professor Charles Figley to help develop an advanced traumatology certification program for Florida State University. Mr. Gismondi specializes in innovative approaches to trauma work and Behavioral Medicine.

PS30 Client Transformations in mind, body and spirit: patterns, milestones & interventions.
Rhonda Greenberg, Psy.D.

PS Enhancing immune function with hypnosis and guided imagery
John Gruzelier

Neurofeedback with schizophrenic patients, new directions in EEG measurement with implications for neurofeedback
John Gruzelier

WS2 QEEG subtypes in ADD/ADHD, LD, OCD, Trauma, etc.
Jay Gunkelman
The 11 QEEG subtypes identified in over 450 children with ADD/ADHD by Robert Chabot, Ph.D. will be discussed and analyzed for NF protocol implications. The theta, alpha and beta subtype groupings and their
variations will be described. The main types will have a case reviewed.

Other cases seen in the workshop will include LD, the OCD subtypes, Trauma and others as time avails.

WS2 Drug, toxic and substance abuse effects on the EEG/QEEG.
Jay Gunkelman

This workshop will cover the major drug categories, as well as common street drugs and toxic exposures expected impacts on qEEG patient profiles. The anti-depressant subtypes' different effects will be discussed. The interaction with individual CNS arousal levels will be identified. A case with before and after qEEGs showing the effects of lithium overdose will also be seen.

PS Frontal Lobe Electro-physiological Evaluation
Jay Gunkelman

The frontal Lobe articles by Niedermeyer suggest specialized topographic distribution of attentional, motor regulation and affective function in the frontal lobes. These differentiations and their electrophysiological profiles will be dislayed. The commonly reported finding of frontal alpha will also be shown to have a variant, with the frontal alpha being an artifact of temporal lobe contamination of the reference electrodes in this subtype.

PS2 Designing NF Intervention Based On qEEG Evaluation
Jay Gunkelman
The optimal use of database for qEEG evaluation will be shown. The availability of remontaging, the increased resolution of single Hz. analysis and presence of an eyes open normative evaluation provides optimal client profiling. The ease of designing NF intervention based on these detailed evaluations will be shown.

PS Twilight Learning in the Treatment of a Case of Sexual Abuse and Sexual Aversion.
Corydon Hammond

PS "QEEG Profiles of Psychiatric and Medical Conditions: A Review from Published Literature."
Corydon Hammond

WS2 Managing Abreactions, Reframing, and Memory Integration During Alpha/Theta Training: Techniques and Liability Protection in a False Memory Era.
Corydon Hammond

ABSTRACT: Alpha/theta training may allow unconscious material to emerge during neurofeedback sessions. This is especially true when therapists are following the Penniston/Kulkosky model for PTSD treatment and creating the expectation and overtly suggesting that the person remember problematic memories. However, when intense material emerges, it is crucial that the patient senses that the therapist is comfortable with and not frightened by the material. Furthermore, unless the patient is very bright and reframes for him/herself, there is nothing necessarily therapeutic about a cathartic experience. At best, they may experience fleeting emotional relief, and at worst, the return of a forgotten memory may constitute a retraumatization unless it is accompanied by a therapeutic reframing and memory integration process. This workshop will discuss methods for the therapeutic management of strong emotional reactions, for titrating affect, and alternatives for reinterpretation and memory integration that are not unduely suggestive.

Working with abuse issues must now be considered a high liability area in the current false memory era. Therefore, this workshop will also include a brief overview of the false memory controversy and its excesses, memory research, and methods for liability protection in working with abuse issues. These latter issues were covered by the speaker in a comprehensive co-authored book that recently won the Guttenmacher Award for the Best Publication of the Year in Psychiatry and the Law from the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law and the American Psychiatric Association.

Spiritual Experiences Through 4-Channel Biocybernaut Alpha Training
Dr. James V. Hardt
Biocybernaut Institute

Across the nation there is a large and growing interest in spiritual experiences. Witness the popularity of Michael Murphy's books describing spiritual experiences that occur on the golf course. While these golfing experiences are rare relative to the numbers of golfers, Michael Murphy believes that a contributing factor to these spiritual experiences is the alternation between intense focus and release of focus inherent in the game of golf. This factor is also present in Biocybernaut alpha training as an alternation between two minutes of eyes closed auditory feedback of EEG alpha and 8 seconds of eyes open display of the digital integrated amplitude scores. Given that alpha feedback enhances brain waves that are known to be related to meditation and prayer, it is understandable that spiritual experiences are quite common in Biocybernaut trainings. Indeed, much of the development of Biocybernaut technology and protocols has been directed toward increasing the opportunities for trainees to have spiritual experiences and spiritual growth. This report describes the spiritual experiences of three people and follows up with some of the beneficial results that changed their lives.

The first trainee was a pregnant 15 year-old girl who had left the church, was at odds with her family, and who was intending to drop out of school and to marry the father of the unborn child in spite of his ongoing relationships with more than a dozen other girls. She also was very fearful of dying while traveling by car. The second trainee was a pregnant mother of 3 children whose pregnancy was unplanned and strongly unwanted. She referred to the growing child within her as "the alien" and was resentfully estranged from this child in her womb. She also had an excessively protective attachment to her 3 year old child leading to some neglect of her 10 and 11 year old children. The third trainee was a creative artist, a grandfather, whose Christianity had a driven quality, who was overburdened by guilt, and who worked excessively, spending little or no time with his family or grandchildren.

Each of these people had profound spiritual experiences in the course of their Biocybernaut alpha training, which will be described in some detail. Each also had life transforming results from these spiritual experiences. The 15 year old girl reconciled with her family and returned to the church. She also realized that the child's father was not a suitable husband to her family's great relief, and she allowed her mother to care for the baby so she could continue her education. She also transcended her fear of car travel. The woman with the "alien" within her, an unwanted pregnancy, had a merging experience with her fetus and her entire attitude toward the fetus was transformed. She also used her alpha training to accomplish creative design projects for her work. After this child's birth a wholesome relationship among her four children ensued. The creative artist had spiritual experiences which put his guilt into a more healthy perspective and he did profound forgiveness of himself and others. Following this, his creativity exploded. One measure of his expanded creativity was given by his assistant who counted 80 significant pieces of art produced over more than 10 years of work for a major client. In the two and a half months following his Biocybernaut training he produced 110 significant pieces of art for the same client. In addition to this phenomenal creative output, the man was also finding more time to spend with his

The ability to produce spiritual experiences and the attendant beneficial life changes are among the more valuable attributes of properly applied intensive neurofeedback training.

WS4 The Grand Unified Theory of Psychology: Submodalities in the Hologram
Thom Hartmann

A model that encompasses all fields of psychology and theology; understanding the holographic filing system of the mind shows us why and how specific therapies work or wound, and why and how the religious "conversion" experience is so often more therapeutic than many "psychological" techniques. Out of that understanding you will learn how to take any psych or theological technique and make it a more powerful tool for transformation and healing, or "functioning effectively socially or in business."

Thom Hartmann is a psychotherapist rostered with the state of Vermont

PS: ADHD: The New Untermenschen?
by Thom Hartmann
copyright Thom Hartmann 1998

The task of preserving and advancing the highest humanity, given to this earth by the benevolence of the Almighty, seems a truly high mission.
Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf, Vol. 2, Ch. 2)

A distressing trend is emerging, among a group I refer to as "Neo-Darwinists," who imply or state flat-out that people with ADHD are less evolved, genetically dysfunctional, and have nothing to contribute to our culture whatsoever. Some have even called for ADHD adults to not have children, for fear that this "defect" will continue to spread. Others use the straw-man scare tactic of threatening that any discussion of ADHD which isn’t purely "it’s a genetic sickness" could lead to loss of funding for special education for ADHD children, or loss of profits to pharmaceutical manufacturers and practitioners who make their living working with ADHD children.
This trend is one which I believe is destructive to our children and dangerous to our society. Because many of these neo-Darwinists begin their work by either citing or condemning my work, I must respond on behalf of our children.

A short history
Back in 1991 I wrote a book proposing a metaphor to explain ADHD to children that I’d been using in various forms since 1978, when I was Executive Director of a residential treatment facility for disturbed children. The metaphor was that the hyperactive kids were actually "good hunters," whereas the very steady, stable, classroom-capable kids were "good farmers." The hunters, I suggested, would do great in the forest or battlefield: their constant scanning ("distractibility") would ensure they wouldn’t miss anything; their ability to make instant decisions and act on them ("impulsivity") would guarantee they’d be able to react to high-stress and response-demanding situations; and their love of stimulation ("need for high levels of stimulation") would cause them to enjoy the hunting world in the first place.

(At its core, ADHD is diagnosed by evaluating the intensity and persistence of these three behaviors.)

I told these kids, however, that they needed to learn the basic "farmer skills," because the world has been taken over by the farmers. Even our schools were organized by the farmers: they let school out in the summer so the kids can help bring in the crops. And factories and cubicles, of course, are just an Industrial- and Technological Age extension of the skill-set useful in agriculture (picking bugs off plants, plant after plant, bug after bug, hour after hour, day after day, year after year…).

The evidence that ADHD may be genetic, and my own experiences over the years visiting with indigenous agricultural and hunter/gatherer people on five continents caused me to even think it possible that my metaphor may also prove to be "good science," although I have little certainty about whether it’s genetics, culture, or both which so often causes indigenous people to fail when put into European-style classrooms. (I suspect both.)
Since that first large-scale publication of the metaphor in 1992, several other scientists, psychologists, and psychiatrists have endorsed the basic concept in their own ways, including articles in Psychological Reports, The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and others. All have agreed that whether or not the idea of genetically different (and genetically adaptive to their environments) humans is true or not, it’s a nice story to tell kids. It acknowledges their difficulties (their struggles in public school), suggests interventions (from "learning farmer skills" to "take farmer pills to make your brain work like a farmer’s for four hours"), and does so in a way which is not destructive to self-esteem.

Given the power of self-esteem in shaping and determining a child’s future, I always considered this a paramount issue. Irregardless of which story we told kids (and their parents and teachers, for that matter) about what ADHD was, where it came from, or how it worked, the stories should always, in my opinion, contain a germ of hope and leave self-esteem intact.

The idea had wide appeal and literally thousands of people contacted me to tell me how useful, inspiring, and empowering they found it. Most of these letters said this view changed their child’s whole outlook on life, and produced measurable (or, at least, noticeable) improvements in the child’s ability to function in school and at home. Many told of improved grades, reports from teachers of improved classroom conduct, and renewed and healed relationships with their children. In 1995, Time magazine wrote about it, saying, "Author Thom Hartmann has laid out a controversial but appealing theory…" In the intervening years, I’ve presented it to tens of thousands of people at conferences on ADHD, neurology, and psychology from Australia to Israel to England to virtually every major city in the United States.

In so doing, I put out this idea that perhaps in ancient times there was some sort of a "natural selection" process involved, to borrow a phrase from Darwin. I suggested that in hunting societies, those very risk-averse, super-methodical, check-it-five-times-before-doing-it people would not be particularly successful as hunters, and so would die off and not pass along their "farmer" genes. On the other hand, in the careful, stable farming societies (such as Japan over the past 3000 years), those wild-and-crazy hunter-types would be weeded out, executed, or expelled and the culture would be left with a lot of very compliant followers and worker-bees but few inventors, innovators, leaders, or…well…hunters.

I now realize that I should never, ever, have used a phrase invented by Darwin.

The neo-evolutionists
The banner of natural selection has now been picked up, and twisted sideways to justify the world-view of some in the ADHD field that ADHD is a genetic sickness, pure and simple. They say we all should simply come to accept it as that and quit whining about imaginary benefits or ancient usefulness. And, extending the logic, voices are now being raised calling on ADHD people to voluntarily restrict their child-bearing, so that their "defective genes" will not continue to spread through and contaminate our population.

For example, a recent front-page editorial in a widely-distributed newsletter for psychologists compares my "hunter/farmer" hypothesis for explaining ADHD in the gene pool to a cute work of fiction in which Rudyard Kipling told new stories of "How the Rhinoceros Got His Skin" and "How the Camel Got His Hump."

The writings and speeches of those carrying the neo-Darwinist banner of "natural selection" with regard to ADHD often suggest that people with ADHD are suffering from a genetic defect. This defect, they say, is the result of evolution — which occasionally produces "more fit" and "less fit" members of a species. (Normally the "less fit" die out or are dominated by the "more fit," according to this interpretation of Darwin’s work.) This is the natural course of the evolutionary process, they say, and the sometimes-explicit and sometimes-implied message is that those with ADHD are less evolved, and that humans who do not have ADHD are more highly evolved, Darwinianly-speaking.

Less evolved?

My first exposure to one of these "new theories of ADHD" was in an article by an east-coast psychologist published in 1996 in Think Fast!: The ADD Experience, a book I helped edit. In that article, the author pointed out that it was in reading Jacob Bronowski’s The Ascent of Man and other works that he came to the idea that ADHD may have an evolutionary basis. ADHD is, after all, largely genetic: evolution and genetics are intertwined.

Although three years earlier I had published a book also referencing Bronowski and suggesting that there may be genetically-mediated behaviors that would be both different and useful in, specifically, hunting/gathering societies and agrarian societies, my hypothesis was an attempt to explain differences between peoples and cultures, not superiority of one person or culture over the other. At its crux, my hunter/farmer metaphor to describe the "challenges of ADHD people in modern society" is one of "square peg in round hole."

My point was never meant to imply that ADHD, or hunter/gatherers, or even agriculturists represent any particular inherent superiority among members of the human race, but rather that they represented differences. I was not suggesting that we had grown or evolved from one to another, but that what we’re calling ADHD (and the other end of the spectrum, "Task-Switching Deficit Disorder" or TSDD, seen among people who actually enjoy being tax accountants) are adaptive characteristics in a particular context.

But over the past few years, as more of these "new theories" have come out, I’m feeling a growing concern. Several had taken my metaphor a full step further, the same as Francis Galton did with Charles Darwin’s early work when Galton suggested that some humans are more highly evolved than others — and, therefore, inherently superior — whereas others were less highly evolved, and therefore inferior.

These neo-Darwinians suggest that as man "evolved" genetically from hunter/gatherer and Neolithic times to the modern humans of today, some people must have evolved more than others. Those who are the most evolved, in their opinion, include those capable of long and sustained focus and attention to boring tasks, such as would be necessary to obtain a Ph.D. in psychology, for example. Those on the branches of the human genetic tree who didn’t "evolve" sufficiently to excel at Farmer-style pursuits, are, according to these authors, "impaired" by comparison. They even have the temerity to call this an "elegant" explanation of the differences between ADHD and "normal" people.

In my opinion, this represents a huge leap. It is one thing to point out that some inherited traits are not useful; it’s quite another to imply that all variations that don’t fit or serve the norm are, de facto, "genetic defects."

The rest of this 6000 word essay can be found at

"Quirks" of Coherence Training
Joe Horvat will discuss several unusual anomalies or unexpected results of cohenence training , including the results of one study documenting outcome results. this will include specific protocals and their expected and unexpected effects on remapping, and the implications for symptoms as well as future eeg evaluations of previously treated patients.

WS4 Coherence Training in M.T.B.I. ADD/ADHD & L.D.
Joe Horvat
an overview of the use of coherence training in work w/ MTBA's, ADD/ADHD's, AND LD's. It will include suggestions as to when and when not it should be considered, a discussion of the difference of coherence training w/ lexicor and non-lexicor equiment, and will have a number of case studies and topographical presentations

PS Why You Need 3-Dimensions to Understand QEEG Results
William J. Hudspeth, Ph.D.
Neuropsychometric Lab
1266 Santa Ynez Avenue
Los Osos, CA - 93402
(805) 534-9830

ABSTRACT: Neuroelectric Images (NIs) are 3-D objects that are computed from coherence or correlation measurements and they serve to depict the functional distance between anatomical systems (i.e., electrodes). Coherence measurements are sensitive to neuropathologies that disturb cerebral connectivities, In traditional evaluations, the utility of coherence measurements seems to be directly related to the number of connections evaluated (i.e.,19 electrodes = 171 combinations). However, even this tradition can be described as a 'flat-lander' approach which does not adequately reflect the functional (3-D) distances between cerebral systems. This presentation makes direct comparisons between coherence connection maps and their 3-D NI counterparts.

WS2 Advances In QEEG Analysis and Interpretation for Neurotherapy
William J. Hudspeth, Ph.D.

This workshop surveys the relationships between raw EEG signals and QEEG analysis results, using several clinical case studies. The presentation demonstrates how the (a) reliability and (b) internal consistency of EEG signals affect the validity of QEEG assessments, interpretations and design of neurotherapy protocols. The survey shows how QEEG-guided neurotherapy protocols depend upon meaningful QEEG database resources.

PS Circadian and Ultradian Rhythms in Topographic EEG across the Waking Day
David Kaiser, Ph.D.

Quantitative topographic EEG data were collected from 130 subjects during eyes closed and eyes open baseline conditions between 8 am and 8 pm. Two hundred and seventy records per condition were analyzed in reference to time of day at data acquisition for 1-Hz frequency bands from 1 to 24 Hz.

Circadian and ultradian rhythms were evident in all frequency bands, most notably during the eyes closed condition. Peak amplitude varied as a function of time of day and frequency band. Alpha activity peaked in mid-afternoon hours whereas activity in lower (e.g., theta) and higher (e.g., beta) frequencies peaked during morning hours. Activity between 7-12 Hz exhibited a relatively distinct and fast ultradian rhythm, imposed on a less prominent circadian cycle, whereas higher and lower frequency ranges exhibited a slower semicircadian rhythm only. Intermediate activity (9-11Hz), associated with cognitive integration, showed a 100-120 min ultradian contribution similar in its periodicity to the Basic-Rest-Activity-Cycle of Kleitman. The presence or absence of an ultradian rhythm may reflect the homogeneity of a signal's source; whether one or more mechanisms (or networks) are involved in a frequency band's generation. Spectral modulation was cued more to clock time than sidereal time, suggesting that human cycles of activity, wakefulness, and eating influenced circadian modulation more than daylight hours. The relevance of these preliminary findings to neurofeedback training will be discussed.

PS Effect of SMR/Beta Training on Neurocognitive Performance
David Kaiser, Ph.D.
EEG Spectrum
16100 Ventura Blvd, #10
Encino, CA 91436

Sixty-three children with attentional problems (impulsive, inattentive, and/or hyperactive; 22 diagnosed with ADHD) exhibited significant improvement in verbal and non-verbal abilities as a result of SMR/beta neurofeedback training (mean 36.4 sessions, 20 session minimum). Performance scores improved in the WISC-R Digit Span test, in the Benton Visual Retention test, and in the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, p<.001. Children also increased their verbal skills from a below the 40th percentile to the 60th percentile on word fluency (FAS) test, p<.001. Manual dexterity was also enhanced by training for both hands, p<.05. As some of these tests have only moderate attentional demands, these findings suggest that in addition to improving attention, neurofeedback training can impact higher cognitive functions.

WS2 "The B I G Picture: Weaving Peripheral Biofeedback, Energy Therapies, and Coaching with EEG Neurofeedback"
Lynda Kirk, MA, LPC, BCIA-Fellow, BCIA-EEG

ABSTRACT: Integrating peripheral biofeedback (EMG, TEMP, SCL, HR, etc.) with EEG neurofeedback can greatly benefit the client by shortening training time; improving generalization of learned skills and states; and increasing internal locus of control. This holistic combination more quickly results in a healthy change in the client's mindbody "parking place".

In addition, the use of energy therapies (e.g. TFT - Thought Field Therapy) with EEG neurofeedback can quickly help the client resolve emotional and physical pain, stress, and/or trauma that may be slowing the training. Effective coaching methods can greatly help the client improve skills and transfer the training to specific contexts in the "real world."

In this workshop, the "when, where, why, and how" of integrating peripheral biofeedback, energy therapies, and coaching will be outlined.

PS15 Weaving Peripheral Biofeedback and Energy Therapies With EEG in ADD/ADHD
Lynda Kirk, MA, LPC, BCIA-Fellow, BCIA-EEG

Integrating peripheral biofeedback (EMG, TEMP, SCL, etc.) with EEG neurofeedback can greatly benefit the ADD/ADHD client by shortening training time; improving generalization of learned skills and states; and increasing internal locus of control. This holistic combination more quickly results in a healthy change in the client's mindbody "parking place".

In addition, the use of energy therapies (e.g. TFT - Thought Field Therapy) with EEG neurofeedback can quickly help the client resolve emotional and physical pain, stress, and/or trauma that may be slowing the training.
Methods for weaving peripheral BFB and energy therapies into EEG neurofeedback training will be presented.

Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields: Biological and Therapeutic Effects
Martha Lappin, Ph.D.
Research Director
Energy Medicine Developments, Inc.
10841 Split Oak Lane
Burke, VA 22015
(703) 250-4695
There is a growing scientific literature confirming that very weak electromagnetic fields can have measureable effects on human physiology.

Scientists are struggling to explain these irrefutable phenomena, and pioneers in the field of bioelectromagnetics are proposing mechanisms of action that have exciting, far reaching implications. At the same time, researchers and entrepreneurs (those not constrained by our limited understanding of human energy systems) are developing, producing, testing, and marketing electromagnetic devices that, in some cases at least, appear to have remarkable therapeutic clinical effects on a variety of chronic conditions.

Current devices range from the very weak, picotesla strength field generators developed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, to the very strong transcranial magnetic stimulators that neuroscientists at NIH and elsewhere serendipitously discovered to be effective treatments for refractory depression. This talk will briefly review and critique some of the most recent research in the emerging field of bioelectromagnetics, from cellular effects that point to the existence of very specific frequency windows, to the remarkable clinical outcomes experienced by people suffering from depression, migraine headaches, and multiple sclerosis.

Measuring and Improving Cardiovascular Homeostasis By Heart Breathing Biofeedback Paul Lehrer, Ph.D.
Department of Psychiatry, RW Johnson Medical School, 671 Hoes La, Piscataway, NJ 08854
Fax: 732-235-4430 Telephone: 732-235-4413

A/V requirements: 35 mm slides, Overhead, Computer screen projector (digital projector or LCD)

Paul Lehrer, Ph.D.
UMDNJ --- Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

Description of workshop:

Heart rate is characterized by patterns of oscillating rhythms which represent the combination of central nervoius system and peripheral influences. Various oscillating rhythms reflect specific central nervous system influences. These relate to homeostatic control of heart rate and vascular activity. The complexity of these rhythms is directly related to health of the cardiovascular system.

This workshop willteach participants how to identify various sources of cardiac variability, and the complex patterns of oscillation that comprise it. They also will have practice in interpretation of various rhythms. They also will learn about the known and hypothesized effects of biofeedback for amplifying respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA).

I will present a theory that biofeedback to increase amplitude of oscillations in heart rhythm at various frequencies can improve homeostatic and adaptive capacities, improve performance in a variety of situations, and enhance resistance to functional illness. The mechanism for these effects appears to be increased efficiency of central homeostatic reflexes. Clinical and research data will be reviewed.

Participants will learn to use several devices for RSA biofeedback, and to see the effect of various behavioral tasks and respiratory maneuvers, both in themselves and in other participants.

Objectives: Attendees will learn the following
1. The various known oscillations in heart rate, their link with breathing, and known physiological mediators.
2. The theoretical links between the body's homeostatic capacity and both the complexity and amplitude of these oscillations; and data supporting these theories.
3. Specific disorders for which RSA biofeedback may be a helpful intervention.
4. Procedures associated with RSA biofeedback, and potential clinical applications.
5. How to perform RSA biofeedback with several equipment packages

Workshop outline:

I. A catalog of known rhythmicities in heart rate.
A. Fast waves (respiratory sinus arrhythmia), slow waves, very slow waves, and ultra slow waves.
1. Demonstrating and illustrating these waves.
2. RSA and respiration
3. Physiological mechanisms
4. Methods of measurement
B. Uniqueness of rhythmicity patterns

II. The links between various measures of cardiac variability and physiological function

A. Cardiac variability and cardiac disease
B. The importance of noise in detecting information and operation of reflexes
C. Psychophysiological adaptation and homeostasis.
1. The theoretical and empirical links between cardiac variability and various measures of healthy homeostasis.
D. Resonance effects and their importance for biofeedback

III. Methods and standards for accurate measurement of cardiac variability.

IV. Cardiac variability and psycho-behavioral function

V. Biofeedback for changing amplitude of various cardiac rhythmicities: methods and strategies.
A. Psychophysiological effects of voluntary increases in amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia.
B. Various methods for providing biofeedback

VII. The Zen of cardiac variability.

VIII. Therapeutic applications of biofeedback for respiratory sinus arrhythmia: demonstrated and potential. Applications to asthma, hypertension, and the anxiety disorders.

IX. Experiential exposure to biofeedback for respiratory sinus arrhythmia, using various equipment packages.
Keynote Description for Friday Evening----------------

Expanding the Spectrum of Self-Mastery:
Mastery, Mystery, and the Technologies of Transformation
D.r Joel Levey
Joel and Michelle Levey
InnerWork Technologies, Inc.
5536 Woodlawn Ave. N.
Seattle, WA 98103
Tel. 206.632.3551 Fax 206.547-7895

This keynote session will introduce our community to a theoretical and contextual overview of an expanded spectrum of self-mastery disciplines. Drawing insights from nearly three decades of intensive EEG research, clinical biofeedback practice, peak performance training, corporate leadership development, and contemplative practice, Dr. Levey will offer a glimpse of the research, methods use directing the Ultimate Warrior Training Program for the US Army Green Berets, participating in a year-long silent contemplative retreat sponsored in part by the Dalai Lama, and from the Leveys' work with thousands of leaders in business and sports. Cartographies of the many dimensions of self-mastery will illustrate the dynamic synergy of: mastery and mystery; active mind skills and quiet mind skills; inner work and outer ethics, modern and ancient technologies of personal development and transformation.

WS2 Mastery, Mystery, and the Technologies of Transformation: An Experiential Workshop and Inquiry
With Dr. Joel and Michelle Levey

This highly interactive and experiential session will introduce a variety of practical principles and techniques for deepening our awareness and appreciation of the many dimensions of self that may be discovered, appreciated, regulated, and mastered. These approaches are complementary to neurofeedback and draw insights from nearly three decades of intensive EEG research, clinical practice, peak performance training, corporate leadership development and contemplative practice.

The Leveys will introduce a variety of methods to understanding the complimentarity of: mastery and mystery; active mind skills and quiet mind skills; outer and inner, and modern and ancient technologies for personal transformation.

Bio Joel Levey, Ph.D. & Michelle Levey, M.A. are founders of Seattle based InnerWork Technologies, Inc., a firm that specializes in developing and renewing organizational cultures in which team spirit, community, creative intelligence, life-work balance, and inspired leadership can thrive. The Leveys serve as Chairpersons for the Center for Corporate Culture & Organizational Health at the Institute for Health and Productivity Management, have served on the faculty of Antioch University, Bastyre University, International Center for Organization Design, and have directed clinical psychophysiological theraphy programs at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound and Children's Hospital. Over the past 25 years they have worked with over 200 leading organizations including: AT&T, NASA, Advanced Technologies Laboratories, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Intuit, Sun, NOAA, Petro Canada, SRI, and the World Bank. As leaders of the U.S. Army's "Ultimate Warrior Project" they guided 'biocybernautic training' for the U.S. Army Green Berets. They have studied closely with many of the world's most respected contemplative masters and have participated in dozens of intensive contemplative retreats including a year long silent retreat sponsored in part by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The Leveys published works include: Living in Balance: A Dynamic Approach to Creating Harmony & Wholeness in a Chaotic World (Book of the Month Club Main Selection - Feb. '98 from Conari Press), two new books--Wisdom at Work and Simple Relaxation and Meditation (both due in May 1999 from Conari Press); The Fine Art of Relaxation 'self-guided' CD, and The Focused Mindstate--one of Nightingale-Conant's best selling business products.

They are contributing authors for numerous business anthologies. The Leveys are based in Seattle and offer services to organizations around the globe. (Info:

Lecture: Integrating Q-EEG & Computerized Tests into Accurate Testing for ADD
Michael Linden, Ph.D. - Director ADD Treatment Centers - Orange County & San Diego
Thirty to fifty percent of children & adults are misdiagnosed as ADD. One-third of children taking Ritalin may not have ADD. Recent developments in Q-EEG Scan testing and CPT tests make it possible to accurately diagnose ADD & ADHD and differentiate it from other conditions which may cause attention & behavior problems, such as depression, anxiety and learning disabilities. Computerized tests also can direct the clinician to chose appropriate candidates for Neurofeedback, select the most efficient direction to begin NF and assist in monitoring NF training and making necessary protocol changes.

Workshop: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About ADD Testing & Treatment But Forgot to Ask
Mike Linden

ADD is the most common psychiatric disorder in children and 10 million adults may be effected. This workshop will review the etiology and causes of ADD. ADD is a complex disorder, and has both many look-a-like causes (family situations, motivation) and co-morbid conditions (depression, anxiety, learning disabilities). More than one third of children & adults are misdiagnosed as either having or not having ADD. The diagnosis of ADD should be based on a thorough testing battery, particularly objective computerized Q-EEG, Continuous Performance Tests (CPT) and personality inventories (MMPI, Millon). These tests, together with clinical interviews and behavior rating scales will be presented. Accurate testing will help select which clients are good candidates for Neurofeedback and what obstacles may interfere with successful training. Testing results will also assist in designing the NF treatment protocol (Beta/SMR, Bi- Polar/Monopolar, Visual/Reading Tasks, etc.) and monitoring the training in order to decide when to make necessary changes. An organized four stage NF treatment plan strategy will be discussed. Other multi-modality treatments (medication, counseling, support groups, social skills classes) will be addressed. Plenty of time for discussion of case examples and questions will be provided.

PS Keynote Relationships between Stimulant Medications, Quantitative EEG, Neurofeedback and Clinical Outcome
Joel F. Lubar, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Department of Psychology

In this presentation I will discuss two studies which evaluate the effects of optimal doses of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on quantitative EEG measures in individuals with the hyperactive-impulsive subtype. This study involves 23 males, ages 9-11. The effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on the EEG during baseline and cognitive tasks were evaluated using spectral analysis.
Both subjective (rating scales) and objective measures (continuous performance, TOVA) measures were administered and analyzed in conjunction with electrophysiological data. Although Ritalin induced regional changes in the EEG under certain task specific conditions, it had no global effects. Behavioral and performance measures were improved with methylphenidate. This initial study was published in Pediatric Neurology, Vol. 18, 1998.

In a subsequent study employing the same individuals additional measures were obtained including measures of coherence, phase, and asymmetry involving 19 channels of quantitative EEG. The effects of methylphenidate were essentially to reduce somewhat the impact of abnormalities in phase, but again, produced no overall clear change in these quantitative EEG measures. In contrast, cases will be presented which show that neurofeedback does change frequency, phase, coherence, and asymmetry measures in individuals and that treating specific locations generalizes to many locations in the scalp and furthermore that the effects are very long term in terms of positive changes in behavioral measures, rating scales, and continuous performance measures. The general conclusion of the presentation will be that neurofeedback is a powerful technique that unlike medication does not lead to temporary but long term changes and often results in reduced reliance on medication as well.

WS4 Discussion of Protocols for Neurofeedback Treatments, Evaluation and
Validation of New Protocols, and Demonstration of Assessment Techniques
Employing Single and Multi-Channel EEG Methods
Presenter: Joel F. Lubar, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Department of Psychology

There are many protocols that have been developed for neurofeedback treatments including those for attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity, learning disabilities, depression, anxiety, pain, head injury, and substance abuse. Some of these protocols have been tested, validated and have been published in peer review journals. Others are purely speculative and require considerable development but still look promising. In this workshop I will discuss how one should approach the development of new protocols, their testing and validation, and their administration. I will also demonstrate using single channel as well as multi-channel QEEG instrumentation, the assessment protocol for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in particular, how to isolate and reinforce specific patterns of EEG activity that are associated with optimal performance of tasks associated with attentional problems such as reading, listening, and other academic activities. Data for a new protocol developed for training individuals at extreme frontal locations (FP1, FP2, and FPZ) will also be demonstrated.

"Wideband Amplitude Reduction: Why It Ought To Be In Your Bag Of Tricks and When You Should Be Careful With It"
Dan Maust

Wideband Amplitude Reduction, nicknamed by many "The Squash" upon it's introduction and since referred to by others as "Wideband Suppression" or "In(hibit) All", has utility for a wide range of clinical problems and issues such as Attention and Memory, Anxiety and Panic, Depression, PTSD, Dissociation and sleep related problems. The technique will be briefly described, descriptions of impact on EEG patterns will be discussed, possible explanations for why it works will be offerred, and indications and cautions for use based on 2 1/2 years of clinical experience with the technique will be shared.

2 hr. workshop:
W9X2: Combining Wideband Amplitude Reduction with Photic Stimulation in Clinical Practice - Do's, Don'ts and Other Ideas"

The basics of Wideband Amplitude Reduction will be described along with clinical utilization of photic stimulation. Applications for improvement of symptoms of Attention Disorder, Memory Deficits, Anxiety, Depression and PTSD will be presented. Basic principles in utilization of photic stimulation in a clinical setting based on personal and clinical experience will be shared. Opportunity will be given to experience and discuss unique protocols developed by the presenter.


PS Macro and Micro Management of Neurofeedback Treatment Resulting in
Long Term Positive Change
Judith O. Lubar, LCSW, BCD Southeastern Biofeedback and Neurobehavioral Institute

Recognizing the patients' neurofeedback learning style within the session and their overall learning style and sharing these details with the patient enhances and speeds up the depth and decreases the length of treatment. A description of the many important details that make a difference will be presented. I will illustrate those details with actual patient records.

On the opposite pole successful treatment often necessitates helping the patient manage in the milieu in which he or she lives– their family, school or work environment and their peer and group relationships. Helping to create a more suitable environment for the patient's special needs and embedding the skills learned in neurofeedback into their daily environment helps the integration of those skills into the patient's lifestyle. Those skills, once they become part of the patient's coping style also become automatically reinforced and maintained long term. I will present specific examples of how this can be achieved and illustrate these examples with actual EEG changes within a session and over time.

WS4: Tuning Up for Success: Management of Treatment for Optimal Long Term Successful Outcome in Neurofedback
Judith O. Lubar, LCSW, BCD, Southeastern Biofeedback and Neurobehavioral Institute

This workshop will be clinically oriented with live demonstrations on equipment and case history presentations which include records of EEG changes overtime and during each sessions.
Successful and long term successful treatment in neurofeedback with children and adolescents means covering the following bases:

1) Appropriate screening of patients so as to carefully assess other comorbidities (including learning disabilities, future possible bipolar disorder, drug use, etc.) so as to highlight those patients who need concurrent interventions and /or other interventions first or who are inappropriate for treatment. (Demonstration) and illustrative case studies.
2) Setting up appropriate expectations for the patient and their family.
3) Setting up the sessions for success i.e., micromanagement of the session (demonstration)
a) assessing patient's EEG learning style b) focusing patient on appropriate portion of the signal
c) assessing the natural length of the attentional response
d) reinforcing appropriate response
e) reframing failures
4) Recognizing the need for psychological intervention from the daily EEG with case study illustrations
5) Dealing with learning disabilities within the session - case study examples
6) Dealing with the family responses during different stages of EEG learning
7) Sharing progress with parents and school
8) Macromanagement of the family, school and peer system through therapy, group therapy, parent training and school interventions.
9) Dealing with termination issues with parents and child


Title and abstract, 30-45 minute lecture (time is adjustable)

NeuroFeedback for Optimal Functioning with Psychotherapy Patients
Linda Mason

Chair Linda Mason

What does doing a QEEG add to the quality of treatment given a client? What kind of tasks are done during the QEEG? What methods-data reference bases, ratios, etc are used to evaluate the data? Jay Gunkleman, Joel Lubar and Barry Sterman will address these issues as they present their analysis of the unartifacted QEEG data and the case history of the same person. Using the same raw data will allow the audience to better evaluate the different approaches and the conclusions reached by each presenter.

Performance Enhancement Training Effects on Attention: A Case Study.
S.Louise Norris, Ph.D., Ching-tse Lee, Ph.D., Juan Cea, and Dmitry Burshteyn.

The purpose of this case study was to evaluate the effects of alpha-increase biofeedback training on human attention. A healthy twenty-three year old male college student had undergone twenty-three sessions of alpha- increase biofeedback (8-13 Hz) at PZ electrode site for a period of eleven weeks. Pre-and Post- visual TOVA CPT test was administered to assess the changes in reaction times and their variability. QEEG evaluation was conducted prior as well as upon the completion of the study. The results of the TOVA test clearly indicate an improvement in individual’s reaction time and the reaction time variability. Statistical analysis showed that before and after QEEG evaluations were within normal limits.

EEG Biofeedback for Chronic Depression.
S. Louise Norris, Ph.D., Jameel Kermalli, M.A., Juan Cea-Aravena, Dmitry Burshteyn, M.A.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Neurotherapy Training on Chronic Depression. Four patients had undergone an average of four month of Neurotherapy Training with the mode of two sessions per week. Hamilton Depression Inventory and Behavioral Assessment of Pain Questionnaire were used to assess the severity of disorder. Initial evaluation indicated mild to moderate level of depression and pain in all four cases. QEEG evaluation was administered to assess patients’ neurological functioning. A treatment protocol was established according to the result of the individual’s assessment. The treatment plan included intensive EEG Biofeedback, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Stress Management, and Preventive Measures Home Relaxation Program. The results indicated significant reduction in depression and anxiety, increased energy and activity, increased social activity, and normalization in some of the brain wave patterns.

The Effects of Performance Enhancement Training on Human Attention, Hypertension, Stress, and Brain Wave Patterns.
S.Louise Norris, Ph.D., Ching-tse Lee, Ph.D., Dmitry Burshteyn M.A., and Juan Cea-Aravena

The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of alpha-increase neurofeedback training (Performance Enhancement Training) on self-awareness, human attention, blood pressure, stress reduction and brain wave patterns. A forty-nine-year-old male college student, diagnosed with essential hypertension controlled by medication, had undergone twenty-six sessions of alpha-increase biofeedback (8-13 Hz) at PZ electrode site for a total period of 15 weeks. Pre and Post visual TOVA tests were administered to assess variables of attention in accuracy, reaction time (RT), and RT variability. The results of the TOVA tests clearly showed an improvement in individual’s reaction time, the reaction time variability and percentage of omission error.

Participant’s blood pressure was measured twice in each session, namely before and after training. After 13 sessions of training, participant discontinued his medication as advised by his physician. The analyses of Mean Arterial Blood pressure (MAP) revealed that the post training sessions’ MAP measures were significantly lower than the pre training sessions’ MAP measures. The participant’s systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the first 13 sessions were not significantly different from those of the last 13 sessions. Pre and Post training assessment of stress with Osterkamp and Press Self-Assessment Stress Inventory indicated stress reduction in two areas, work and social life. The participant was able to increase his alpha amplitude level, in relation to his baseline reading, from 61% in his initial five sessions to 89% in his five final sessions. QEEG evaluation was conducted prior as well as upon the completion of the study. Statistical analyses showed that before and after QEEG evaluations were within normal limits.

PS: The Dangers of Balance
Len Ochs

Homeostasis, referring to the balanced ability of a system to maintain its own integrity and functioning, is often associated with the ability of a system to maintain its own proper functioning. In a similar fashion, the term malhomeostasis might be considered to be the ability of a system to maintain itself in a state of improper balance or unhealthy functioning despite the best clinical efforts.

Chronic problems have a balance and stability of their own; and they persist despite the best efforts of clinicians to ameliorate them. In EEG neurotherapy the persistence and chronicity of problems can be tied to the malhomeostatic hypercoherence, or delicately balanced hypocoherence patterns in the electrophysiology, the vascular patterns, and the neurochemistry.

Stepping back for a moment, there are easy problems, in which the systematic context of a problem can be ignored. However the more difficult problems we encounter bring with them the emeshed systems of neuronal functioning which must be dealt with as systems, and as systems within systems -- whether we are talking about amplitude, variability, phase, or coherence patterns. And unless the effects of working at one placement on the head are considered in relation to other sites, then we are likely to see the durability of our interventions weaker than we would like.

"The Hijacked Brain, Subcortical Survival Mechanisms and Alpha-Theta Training."
Sue Othmer

WS2 "Getting the Most out of Your Neurocybernetics Instrument"
Sue Othmer

For Neurocybernetics users.

Discussion and demonstration of special features and new software. Introducing new autogoal and autoscale functions. Filter selection with variable reward filter. Looking at spectral displays and screening filters to choose inhibit frequencies. Strategies for recognizing and reducing artifact. How to use tactile feedback and new feedback displays.

PS The EEG, brain states, and self-regulation"
Siegfried Othmer

"Is the EEG simply brain noise, or is it signal? If it is signal, what does it encode? And what changes does operant conditioning of EEG parameters effect? The brain must have explicit mechanisms to assure its own stability in the bioelectrical domain. EEG biofeedback gives us insights into those mechanisms."

Key Insights from my Ten Years at Tools:
BioPhysics, Neuro-optimization, Neuromysticism, and an Emerging New Multimedium
by Terry Patten
Founder, Tools For Exploration
4286 Redwood Hwy, #255
San Rafael, CA 94903
415/499-7727 Fax

If the human system is as much an energy phenomenon as a biochemical mechanism, then our biophysics is just as fundamental to us as our biochemistry. Self-control of brainwaves, heartwaves, and autonomic responses as well as passive exposure to certain patterns of light, color, sound, electricity, energy frequencies and music can provoke profound and stable shifts, that may even resolve diverse persistent symptoms and liberate important new abilities and awareness. At the same time, our senses and nervous systems are exquisitely sensitive and can be profoundly diminished by alcohol, drugs, television, numbing sound pollution, EMFs, chemical toxins, and overstimulation of various kinds.

What does this reveal about the human nervous system? (1) It is exquisitely sensitive. (2) It is a self-regulating, non-linear, open, adaptive homeostatic system that can fall to "lower" or rise to "higher" levels of flexibility, responsiveness, and unpredictability. (3) It begs another question: Along this continuum, what characteristics define higher levels of neurological function? Are they primarily definable in terms of function, or perhaps choice, or perhaps awareness? Is a kind of myticism inherent in human neurology?

Viewed in the largest context, what is our field contributing? (1) We have given birth to a new, rapidly improving, trait-altering biophysics-based alternative to biochemistry-based psychopharmacology. (2) We are in the process of giving birth to a new multimedium, which uses direct neuro-triggering to induce powerful, intimate, state-altering effects, a biophysics-based alternative to biochemistry- based psychedelic drugs.

The Freeze-Framer: A New Heart Rate Variability Monitor
by Terry Patten
Founder, Tools For Exploration
4286 Redwood Hwy, #255
San Rafael, CA 94903
415/499-7727 Fax

The presentor, a member of the development team for this new tool, will describe and demonstrate the Freeze Framer Emotional Management Enhancer, a heart-rate variability (HRV) monitor using an easy-to-use pulse sensor on the finger. Based on research from the Institute of HeartMath showing the link between HRV data, autonomic balance, and emotions, the Freeze-Framer includes a realtime HRV graph, a sophisticated numerical entrainment score including entrainment ratios, training in using the Institute of HeartMath's techniques for emotional management, and three easy fun games for increasing autonomic entrainment. The Freeze-Framer is scheduled for release in spring
of 1999.

Terry Patten - Bio Generalist, entrepreneur and consciousness explorer Terry Patten is best known as the founder, and for a decade, the guiding spirit behind the Tools For Exploration catalog, the publication which first united in one place the hundreds of new products that embody cutting-edge technologies for peak performance, stress management, and energy enhancement, each designed to somehow integrate and/or empower the human mind/brain, the human body/mind/consciousness, and the universal subtle energy/spirit. He is co-designer of the BioCircuit products, the Breathwork Explorer biofeedback tool, co-producer of numerous psycho-acoustic recordings, including those of Neuro-Acoustic Laboratories, including The Five Directions, as well as Anna Wise's recordings, The High Performance Mind and Paul Swingle's Attention!. He is also an independent certified trainer in the HeartMath System(R) of tools for managing mind and emotions, and currently is overseeing the development of a new heart-rate variability monitor and biofeedback device based on the Intitute of HeartMath's research. He is also known as co-author (with Leslie Patten) of the book, BioCircuits, and a (with Julian Isaacs) Double-Blind Study of the BioCircuit, a Putative Subtle Energy Device.

PS: Brain wave signatures for false memory, conscious and unconcious recognition.
WS4 Basic Neuroscience and Review of Neurofeedback Paradigms in partial Preparation for the BCIA-EEG Certification Exam.
J. Peter Rosenfeld, Ph.D

PS "How Biofeedback is Performed in Public Schools".
Mary Jo Sabo

EEG Biofeedback -What Goes On Behind the Scene
The administration of a Biofeedback Program in three public urban schools.
The supervision and coordination of the training of over 100 children.

WS2 "The Steps to Integrating EEG Biofeedback in Public Schools".
Mary Jo Sabo and
Linda Vergara
914 376 8460 Enrico Fermi school 8465

Whiplash, Pain & PTSD: The Gain in Pain Comes Mainly From the Brain
Robert Scaer

The whiplash syndrome is a complex, poorly understood and controversial cluster of symptoms including spinal pain, cognitive dysfunction, neurologic symptoms and emotional complaints consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder. Perhaps its most perplexing feature is the fact that symptoms frequently are far out of proportion to the severity of the accident itself.
The frequency of emotional symptoms has led many physicians to attribute symptoms of whiplash to somatization.

The typical syndrome of whiplash includes chronic headaches, spinal and jaw pain, usually classified as myofascial pain. Neurologic symptoms include cognitive dysfunction, positional vertigo, balance disturbance, blurring of vision, photophobia and phonophobia, all of which are attributed to minor traumatic brain injury. Emotional complaints include driving phobias, irritability, hypervigilence, exaggerated startle, flashbacks, depression, nightmares and sleep disturbance. DSM IV compatible or subsyndromal forms of PTSD occur in up to 60% of patients.
I began to question the traumatic basis for whiplash when I discovered that most of my patients with delayed recovery had remarkable past histories of trauma, especially child abuse. I discovered that early and rigorous use of somatically based trauma therapies, especially EMDR and Somatic Experiencing resulted in clearing not only of emotional symptoms, but also neurologic and pain-related complaints in many cases. I have concluded that the neurophysiological basis for traumatization includes not only kindled arousal, explicit and procedural memory circuits, but also automatic patterns of neuromuscular bracing, stored in procedural memory analogous to motor skill memory. Bracing patterns of involved muscles represent protective motor reflexes from the moment of injury. Linked to memory and arousal, this kindled circuit leads to perpetuation of regional myofascial pain. Dissociation plays a major role in perpetuation of this phenomenon, and accounts for many of the unusual neurologic symptoms of whiplash.

This model conforms to current theories of PTSD as a model of kindling, but includes the somatic element that I believe is a universal part of the syndrome of traumatization. The pervasive neurohormonal effects of trauma account for the remarkable amount of somatic complaints in this syndrome, and may be the basis for many poorly understood chronic idiopathic disease processes. Incorporation of the neuromuscular system in the process of traumatization pleads for the study of somatically-based therapies for PTSD.

WS2 Trauma & Chronic Pain; Treating Pain Through Brain Modification
Robert Scaer, MD

Up to 60% of patients seeking treatment in centers for chronic pain management have a past history of severe life trauma, especially child abuse.

Almost all of them suffer from anxiety, social constriction, depression and sleep disturbance. Standard personality and behavioral tests usually reveal high scores in somatization, depression and emotional distress. Most chronic pain patients exhibit nonphysiologic clinical signs on neurologic examination consistent with conversion and symptom magnification. Such clinical features lead many primary physicians to attribute chronic pain to "psychological" causes.
Our experience with chronic pain in auto accidents and other traumatic events has led us to conclude that the phenomenon of traumatization is the primary trigger for development of persistent pain, and that associated somatic dissociation may be the driving force for its perpetuation. Incorporation of pain memory in a kindled circuit involving arousal centers of the brain and both explicit and procedural memory leads to perpetuation and worsening of pain in a pattern determined by dissociation. Applying this theory with the use of somatically based trauma therapy combined with intensive neuromuscular reeducation has resulted in dramatic improvement in preliminary outcomes in our chronic pain program. We will discuss theories and models of application of this technique, and welcome discussion concerning similar methods of trauma therapy.

We will review therapeutic techniques, including unique inhibitory stretching techniques, somatically based trauma desensitizing therapies, use of biofeedback both in relaxation and neuromuscular reeducation, pharmcological agents, educational programs and detoxification procedures.

PS New News about the Neurobiology of the Cortical Pathways of Distress
Carol Schneider

The pathways of distress outlined so elegantly by Edgar Wilson include neuromuscular, neurovascular, neurohormonal and neuropsychiatric. New information on the central nervous system top down mediation of each pathway will be described.

WS4 The case for lowered autonomic arousal Biofeedback training from the bottom up: The how and why of EMG, Thermal & GSR biofeedback
Carol Schneider

Many clinicians who train with EEG biofeedback are still using EMG, TEMP and GSR training prior to EEG for certain psychophysiologic disorders, or even as a preliminary training for ADD and addictions. They feel it cuts the number of EEG training sessions for many reasons which will be outlined. Training from the top down is not the same as the effect of training from the bottom up. The rationale for these modalities, as well as simple training tips will be provided.

Energy Therapies panel with Pat Carrington
Integrating EMDR with Somatic Experiencing Theory and Treatment."
Carol Schneider

Combining power therapies which impact different areas of the triune brain increases the power to effect lasting resolution of both the CNS and ANS effects of PTSD. Cases illustrating this will be presented. Some QEEG data and theories indicating brain stem, thalamic ROFC dysfunction in PTSD will be explored.

WS with Mike Gismondi
Carol Schneider

PSK Survival of consciousness and the brain (after death)
Gary Schwartz

Audio-Visual Entrainment, its Affects On Producing Dissociation and Related Clinical Implications
By Dave Siever

Dissociation is typically associated with "healing" as with meditation and pathology as with anxiety and psychotic disorders. Some people suffer from mild to intense anxiety concurrent with a dissociative episode. Since the discovery of photic driving by Adrian and Matthews in 1934, much has been discovered about the benefits of BWE. New research has shown that AVE is an excellent way to generate dissociation. Those who develop anxiety during dissociation can use AVE as a method of providing clinical desensitization for dissociative anxiety. A significant percentage of our FMS participants also prefer and benefit greatly from low frequency, non-entraining (but dissociation inducing) stimulation over the neurological "model."

Audio-Visual Entrainment as Applied to Peak Performance
David Siever

Throughout the centuries, athletes and their trainers have made great strides in perfecting the various physical, mechanical and nutritional skills needed to produce the peak physical performance of athletes. It has only been of recent that the scientific study of the mental performance of an athlete has been shown to be a serious part of performance training. In the last decade, audio-visual entrainment (AVE) has shown promise in helping athletes and non-athletic peak-performers such as business persons, stock brokers, actors, musicians and so on maintain extended periods of peak performance. AVE produces dissociation which can be used with NLP, visualization and desensitization therapy. Athletes also report that they feel more relaxed and focussed and they feel less post-workout pain when combining their exercise program with AVE. Dave will present success stories (some on video tape) and explain the affects that AVE has in relation to elevating and maintaining these precious states of mind.

PS An Audio/Visual Entrainment Program For Children With Attention Deficit Disorder and Reading Difficulties In a School Setting
Michael Joyce, Dave Siever

Heart of the Lakes Elementary School
Comptronic Devices Limited
Michael Twittey
University of Alberta

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and learning Learning Disorder (LD), anxiety,
conduct disorder, and depression interfere with a student’s ability to perform. These maladies have been reduced and/or eliminated as the child’s arousal (brain) level is modulated. Controlling one’s brain activity or level of arousal can be learned through various brain educating activities. Two of the most prominent non-drug, electronic approaches for enhancing brain function are EEG neurofeedback and audio-visual entrainment (AVE). AVE stimulation was the technology utilized in this investigation.

This AVE investigation was implemented to substantiate and improve upon previous research of bringing about neuro- developmental growth and to demonstrate the simplicity and usefulness of providing low cost effective brain enhancing technology in a school setting. There were improvements in attention, specifically impulsiveness and variability as measured with the TOVA.
Children in a reading challenged group also improved considerably. The results warrant serious consideration for utilizing AVE as a clinical approach when addressing reading, attention, learning, and general over-all academic, social/emotional growth and development of children.

W9KK2 History Research & the Rules of Audio-visual Brain Entrainment/Light and Sound Technology.

Since the discovery of photic driving by Adrian and Matthews in 1934, much has been discovered about the benefits of brainwave entrainment (BWE). Recently termed light and sound (L&S) technology, brainwave entrainment, or audio/visual stimulation, L&S’s first clinical applications are the credit of Sidney Schneider who developed the first photic stimulation device called the Brain Wave Synchronizer in 1958 and prompted the first research. By 1996, published research on L&S’s effectiveness in relaxation, anaesthesia, ADD, PMS, SAD, migraine headache, chronic pain, stress reduction, and dental hypnosis was available. This workshop will review the research in detail, including some of the chronic pain research presently being conducted in conjunction with the Psychology Dept at the University of Alberta and Horst Mueller Ph.D. Dave will explain what occurs during and from a L&S experience in both physiological and psychological terms. We will also examine the physiological and psychological rules surrounding BWE which are necessary to make it an effective and enjoyable experience. There will be a demonstration showing brainwave entrainment on an EEG spectral array.

Everyone will have the chance to experience a session on brainwave entrainment devices. The workshop will end with a question and answer period with Dave, regarding methodology and equipment operation.

WS SKIL Topometric M. Barry Sterman, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus, School of Medicine, UCLA, and Director of Research, EEG Spectrum

Monday Panel: Brain Stimulation: with Tom Budzynski Len Ochs, Martha Lappin,
Panel Chair: Paul Swingle

WS: EEG Database Guided Neurotherapy
Robert Thatcher

See a complete article on this topic at QEEG article.htm (there are spaces between thatcher qeeg and article) Or go to, then to QEEG Central, then to the article using the links we’ve provided.

Robert W. Thatcher, Ph.D.

Departments of Neurology and Radiology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, and the Bay Pines Foundation

Approximately one to five million people suffer a traumatic brain injury in the U.S. each year. The biomechanics of closed head injury involves fluid dynamic tissue boundary changes within the brain that include contusions of the gray matter and shear force injuries to the white matter. The mechanical consequences of a force imparted to the skull result in characteristic and quantifiable changes in the EEG and the MRI.

New methods of integrating QEEG have provided fresh insights into the physiological and electrical consequences of traumatic brain injury.

Increased amplitude of slow wave or delta frequency activity is correlated with white matter injury whereas reduced amplitude of alpha and beta frequencies is correlated with gray matter injury. Mild traumatic brain injury primarily involves gray matter injuries whereas moderate and severe traumatic injury includes white matter injury. A spatial gradient of gray matter and white matter injury stemming from frontal and temporal cortex and extending to deep subcortical structures is reflected in both the QEEG and the QMRI. Gray matter injury is also correlated with reduced short distance EEG coherence and increased long distance EEG coherence while white matter injury is correlated with decreased long distance EEG coherence. Reduced speed of information processing and reduced efficiency of information processing is reflected in specific patterns of the QEEG measures of amplitude, coherence and phase.