Related Topic(s):

2002 Winter Brain Meeting Abstracts; Talk and Workshop Descriptions

Psychic Phenomena and the Brain: Localization, Locality or Non-Locality
Cheryl H. Alexander, Ph.D.
Life Quality Resources
5613-101 Duraleigh Road
Raleigh, NC 27612
(919) 782-4597
For decades, researchers have been trying to identify neurophysiological
correlates of psychic (psi) phenomena. With the advancement of technology,
and the development and more widespread use of quantitative electroencepha­lography (QEEG), neurophysiological correlates are being identified and localization of brain electrical activity during these unusual events is being found. The profound philosophical question of locality or non-locality arises because of these findings. In other words, is psychic phenomena a manifestation of the human brain, or is the human brain the instrument for detecting these phenomena? These issues will be explored in this presentation.


Biographical Sketch:

Cheryl Alexander, Ph.D. is a neurofeedback clinician at Life Quality
Resources in Raleigh, North Carolina. Cheryl has had a life-long interest in
parapsychology and conducted research in this area at the Institute for
Parapsychology in Durham, NC from 1993-2000. She is the recent recipient of
the Frances P. Bolton fellowship for post-doctoral studies in parapsychology, and a previous recipient of the Eileen J. Garrett Scholarship for Parapsychological Research and the Gertrude R. Schmeidler Award for Outstanding Student Contribution to Parapsychology.

Adaptive Training Procedures for Spiritual and Psychological Transformation
By Valdeane W. Brown, Ph.D.
General Presentation
Despite advances in computer technology and information processing theory,
virtually all clinical Neurofeedback remains based on the simple triggering
of feedback events when a single intensity measure (like amplitude) in a
certain frequency range (eg 12-15 Hz) has crossed a particular pre-set value
or "threshold" of interest.

At times these targeting approaches have been made more complex and robust
by the use of ratios (eg Theta/Beta), durations (ie how long), or counts (ie
how many times), alternate metrics (like "coherence") or other analogous
derivations but, by and large, the basic model has remained strikingly similar: viz intensity of a singular function within frequency range at certain moments within sessions. This orientation has also been linked by many to the hope for longitudinal data reflecting clear shifts in the mean values of these various metrics across sessions. However, the outcome data reported by many in the field indicates that there is more diversity among results across these different methods than would be anticipated; and, thus, the search continues for increasingly more refined measures, or metrics, of clinically relevant changes in EEG.

This is especially evident and problematic in the context of using Neurofeedback to promote Spiritual Transformation. The desired states and abilities are more diverse, more fundamentally transformative and more comprehensive in their affects throughout the CNS, than those involved in the promotion of Psychological Transformation. Because of these factors, it seems very important for the field to become conversant with and adept in more comprehensive and "complex" targeting strategies.

We have been finding two targeting strategies to be particularly important and useful in promoting Spiritual Transformation, as well as Psychological Transformation. This presentation will describe these two strategies and outline the clinical responses to them that we have seen in our clinical work, all of which involves the use of two channels of EEG with active sensors at C3 and C4, regardless of the client's presentation, complaints, history or desires for the training.

The first approach uses what we call "Comprehensive Portals" and is based on
the NeuroCare Pro(c) Neurofeedback system. In this Portal, the clinician sees and uses a "comprehensive" array of augments and inhibits that include all of the specific targets described in the Period 3 Approach developed by Valdeane W. Brown and Susan Brown. This means that a complete array of bilateral inhibits is used (including 2-6 Hz and 23-38 Hz), along with a complete array of augments (viz, C3 15-18 Hz, C4 13-15 Hz, bilateral 19-23 Hz, bilateral 38-42 Hz) and a "swing target" of 8-13 Hz, which functions as an augment when eyes are closed, but an inhibit when eyes are open. In addition, a separate dedicated "Crossover" target is used. All of these targets are used concurrently, not sequentially, which yields a very complex array of triggering possibilities integrating 17 different targets in real-time. The second approach uses arrays of targets based on the observed 7 Hz "harmonics" in the EEG: ie targets center around 7 Hz, 14 Hz, 21 Hz, 28 Hz, 35 Hz and 42 Hz.

Both approaches use full autothresholding so that the clinician can most easily "dance with the dendrites" of the client. In particular, it has been fascinating to watch how the CNS itself "coaches" or educes the feedback that is maximally useful to it from the Comprehensive Portals. The use of these two targeting approaches will be discussed, especially in terms of the dramatic affects produced for both Psychological and Spiritual transformation.

Electro-Smog and Neurofeedback: The Effects of Training a 50 Hz and 60 Hz Signal to Ameliorate the Symptoms of Electro-Smog
By Valdeane W. Brown, Ph.D.
General Presentation
Traditional approaches to Neurofeedback assume that effective training can only occur in frequency ranges that lie far away from standard sources of "noise" like wall current. In America this means isolating and removing the components of all signal near 60 Hz, whereas, in Europe it means isolating and removing the components of all signal near 50 Hz. However, with recent advances in both hardware and software, it is entirely possible to both detect and feedback shifts in these frequency ranges, if the correct signal detection procedures are used with robust enough computers and amplifiers. This means using 3rd or higher order JTFA-based denoising procedures with an amplifier that rolls off at 61 Hz or higher. JTFA or Joint Time-Frequency Analysis allows for the discernment of various forms of "noise" due to the particular signature of that noise within the joint time-frequency domain, while also preserving the particular characteristics of the EEG that share a frequency range. The NeuroCare Pro(c) Neurofeedback system contains such DSP (Digital Signal Processing) capabilities and was used for the training that will be described.

Beyond the obvious implications of an expanded target range, one can ask whether or not this particular DSP function is useful clinically - and the answer appears to be yes, at least in regard to what has been called "Electro-Smog" in Europe. A large body of clinical work has delineated there a pattern of immune dysfunction that seems to be induced and maintained by sustained contact with line current, which in Europe is 50 Hz.

A particular EEG signature can be seen using the NeuroCare Pro(c) Neurofeedback system in clients suffering from "Electro-Smog" and the specifics of this pattern involve a diagonal, time-frequency based "ramping up" of activity along the frequency spectrum culminating in a rapid 50 Hz burst that is not correlated with shifts in the wall current. The signal is somewhat reminiscent of Doppler phenomenon and disappears with successful training. This precise signature attenuates and/or disappears with effective neurofeedback, especially when a 50 Hz inclusive "inhibit" target is included.

Initial work on American subjects reveal this same pattern but centered around 60 Hz, rather than 50 Hz.

Three important implications arise from this work:

Signals at or near line current can be detected accurately with specific JTFA techniques and sufficiently powerful EEG amplifiers.

Feeding back activity at or near line current can be very important in ameliorating or transforming particular clinical presentations.

"Electro-Smog" may be characterized by a particular Joint Time-Frequency signature at or near the frequency value of line current in the environment in which the symptoms manifest.

What Are The Fundamentals of EEG And Clinical Neurofeedback: The Period 3
Approach Provides An Interesting Answer
Brown, Valdeane W., Ph.D.
Foundations Course
Neurofeedback continues to evolve rapidly, in fact, it is probably more appropriate to consider the changes in this field to represent a revolution rather than an evolution. Due to these factors, the question of fundamental training comes even more sharply into focus. What is the set of ideas, techniques, theory and know-how that are essential for providing this life changing technology to others? It is clear that extensive training in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and a host of other fields is not essential to effective practice. Although such approaches continue to be promulgated, their specificity is mutually exclusive, contradictory and even arbitrary; however, despite their patent or obvious distinctions, there is little discernible difference in measurable outcomes among these partitive perspectives. They all do fairly well with their target symptoms, disorders or goals and considerably less well with everything else. Clearly a new paradigm is called for - one that is easily accessible by the average practitioner, that does not require memorization of the useless arcanca of academia, and that offers a simple yet comprehensive approach to clinical neurofeedback. The Period 3 Approach offers just this breakthrough and will be used as the backdrop for introducing you to the remarkable benefits that the field of clinical neurofeedback has to offer to your clients. Based on the insights of Non-Linear, Dynamical (or NLD) Control theory and sophisticated analyses of specific EEG frequencies and their clinical
correlates, the Period 3 Approach is the one approach that can be used across the entire range of disorders that you are likely to encounter in your clinical practice.

You will learn:
The EEG correlates of consciousness and its modifications and perturbations
The role that can be played by NLD control mechanisms and how this paradigm
simplifies and increases your clinical efficacy and efficiency
How to use static, dynamic and dynamical thresholds
How a more comprehensive filtering schema makes your job easier, while also
maximizing the clinical response of the client
How to fractionate clients between states to increase both resilience and flexibilty in their EEG and how this leads their symptoms to just drop away

1. To describe the structure and specifics of the Period 3 Approach
2. To describe the role of resilence and flexibility in symptom resolution
3. To describe the differences between static, dynamic and dynamical thresholds
4. To describe the EEG correlates in consciousness

Non-Duality Practices and Neurofeedback: Timeless Spiritual Transformation
in the 21st Century
By Valdeane W. Brown, Ph.D.
4 hour workshop (but I would greatly prefer an 8 hour format as it will increase the experiential value for participants)

Many spiritual practices attempt to educe a discrete state or ability in the client. Various forms of "relaxation techniques" have been used, including biofeedback and neurofeedback-based procedures, in order to assist this process. Other approaches use neurofeedback-based procedures to facilitate access to different transformative states such as "Alpha-Theta" and "Global Synchrony", among many others. Almost all of these practices are based, however, on the concept of educing a particular access strategy, of convergence point, or desired state for the client. Moreover, the theories that underlie these various practices tend to be either more "religious" in character or more "scientific" and lacking in experienced connection to spirituality even when they are effective and compelling.

Non-Duality practices are derived from traditional Buddhist practices and are based on the fundamental concepts of "Profound Emptying" as I like to call it (traditionally known as sunyata, wu-wei or "The Great Death"), compassion, release of suffering and the causes of suffering, as well as full access to the present. The term Non-Duality is used to indicate that all distinctions, all antinomies, all personal attachments, as well as all ego-defining activities and meaning are suspended through Surrendering to the practices, leaving one to experience "Profound Emptying" or "The Dark Night of Soul" as St. John of the Cross would say.

This workshop will allow participants a chance to experience these practices both in traditional and neurofeedback-assisted forms, as well as to learn how to integrate them into your own clinical work.

1. Experience a variety of Non-Duality practices especially Surrendering.
2. Understand the role of comprehensive approaches to Neurofeedback in promoting Non-Duality practices.

1. Non-Duality refers to practices that transcend and "pre"-scend all
distinctions. T/F
2. Neurofeedback using Comprehensive Portals can help clients access Non-Duality. T/F
3. The transformative frame and personal practice of the clinician/guide is not particularly relevant to facilitating Non-Duality practices. T/F
4. Tonglen is an active form of Surrendering. T/F
5. Tonglen is an active form of Discernment. T/F
6. Global Synchrony is a distinct EEG signature that must be trained using synchrony-based measures. T/F
7. Proufound Spiritual Transformation is always accompanied by a strong "Felt Sense" of suffering or release from suffering as experienced by the client. T/F

Post conference Three Day Workshop Feb 12-14
Untying the Knots: Non-Linear Possibilities for Personal Transformation

Presented by Valdeane W. Brown, Ph.D. & Susan Cheshire Brown, Ph.D.
Zengar Institute in conjunction with FutureHealth is pleased to announce that it will be offering a 3 day course Untying the Knots: Non-Linear Possibilities for Personal Transformation, February 12-14 in Miami after the FutureHealth Conference

Neurofeedback is a powerful technology that can promote profound personal transformation; however, that potential can be compromised by lack of clinical awareness and skill on the part of the practitioner. Conversely, its potential can be greatly enhanced by the addition of various other approaches and techniques, including many that are based on more typical modalities like therapeutic dialogue. This course will present several of the important approaches and techniques that have been used to promote personal transformation, both alone and in the context of Neurofeedback.

This course will go far beyond only presenting information re: Clinical Neurofeedback, the skills, methods and approaches presented in this course
form a fundamental part of the overall Period 3 Approach to CNS Functional
Transformation. It will cover those aspects of the overall "container" that are vital for a vibrant and effective neurofeedback practice.

Traditional therapeutic models have focused on bringing clients to a conscious awareness and understanding of the various intrapsychic and interpersonal dynamics that underlie, contribute to or maintain targeted problematic behavior and experience. From a Cognitive-Behavioral perspective, for instance, the client is taught to look for the prototypical cognitive patterns that persist across situations whereas, from a Family Systems perspective, the client is taught to observe the use of triangulated communications and interactions. While useful in many ways, these approaches are both too specific and too non-specific to be easily adopted.

In this course we will explore the specifics sets of distinctions that maintain communication patterns and personal identity, with a view to discovering how to maximally shift those patterns, while simultaneously maximizing client comfort with the process of transformation. The fundamental organizing principle of this approach concerns the role of self-generated constrictions in existential possibility. These constrictions are typically incarnated quite literally through the use of the word "Not" in statements of deeply experienced identity. The specific role of information processing in the central nervous system, and its psychophysiological correlates, will be discussed. Participants will learn to recognize the basic pre-cursors to emotion and will learn how to utilize nuanced interventions to shift from negative to positive emotional states. This is the overall way in which you will come to learn to untie your own knots.

Particular techniques to be learned include:
The Fundamental question of a Solution-Oriented Rapid Therapeutic approach
The use of temporal-based distinctions to promote change
The existential distinctions and their applications for change
The Four Distinctions of Nagarjuna and their use in personal transformation
Pro-active use of Association, Dissociation, and Fractionation of states
The "Give Them The Finger" technique for disrupting trauma
The Miracle Question
The role of Non-Linear, Dynamical and Quantum Physical Models

You will also learn the historical underpinnings of these approaches and techniques as seen through the lens of Buddhist Psychology. From that core
perspective it becomes clear to see that remaining the same - especially when that involves suffering - requires great precision and energy from the one who suffers. Transformation on the other hand, is liberating and releases energy - but only when one has learned how to untie the knots and allow for non-linear possibilities of change. This course if oriented to providing fundamental skills, methods and approaches that underlie the Period 3 Approach to Clinical Neurofeedback. It comprises one part of the overall Clinical certification process in that approach. However, the course is also appropriate for clinicians who do not
currently use, nor anticipate using, Neurofeedback within their applied settings.

The course will run from 10 AM - 6 PM each day.
Registrations can by faxed to (631) 473-3811.
For further information please send email to
Zengar Institute is approved by the American Psychological Association to
offer continuing education for psychologists. Zengar Institute maintains
responsibility for the program
Explorations in Neurotheology

Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D. and Helen Kogan Budzynski, Ph.D.
University of Washington
General: Recent MRI investigations have focused on the delineation of the parts of the human brain involved in certain transcendent experiences such as Tibetan meditation that produces a "oneness with the universe" feeling. Other research has begun to examine interventions that may be able to generate such brain states such as Michael Persinger’s work with lateralized electromagnetic stimulation. This workshop will discuss this background research as well as recent results obtained with combinations of electromagnetic stimulation, hemifield photic stimulation and neurofeedback procedures. Participants will be able to try these procedures.

Finally, participants will receive an excellent list of notes, abstracts and references on this important and exciting area that could be considered a natural extension of the Decade of the Brain.
Selected References
Damasio, A.R. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co.
Jaynes, J. (1976). The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Kazanovskaya, I.A. (1995). Influence of lateralizized brain photostimulation on the dynamics of interhemispheric asymmetry. Human Physiology, 20, 249-255.
Newberg, A., D’Aquili, E. & Rause, V. (2001). Why God Won’t Go Away. New York: Ballantine Books.
Novak, P. (1997). The Division of Consciousness: The Secret Afterlife of the Human Psyche. Charlottsville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing.
Schiffer, F. (1998). Of Two Minds: The Revolutionary Science of Dual-Brain Psychology. New York: The Free Press.
Schwartz, G.E., & Russek, L.G.S. (1999). The Living Energy Universe. Charlottsville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing.
Walsch, N.D. (1995). Conversations with God: An Uncommon Dialogue. Charlottsville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing.

30 minute talk
Short and Long-Term AVS (Audio-Visual Stimulation) Effects in an Alzheimer’s Patient as Documented by QEEG and LORETA

Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D. and Leslie Sherlin, B.A.

Introduction: Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS) can induce a frequency-following response in the EEG as measured on the scalp (Budzynski, et al. (1999), but can AVS produce changes in the subcortical areas of the brain of an Alzheimer’s patient? The new technique known as LORETA (Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was used to determine deeper structure involvement and to compare that with QEEG results from the surface. Follow-up QEEGs and LORETA analyses will determine if a training program of 30 AVS sessions plus intermittent home use results in extended effects over a longer period.
Method: A baseline QEEG (eyes open, eyes closed and serial sevens challenge) was followed by 20 minutes of AVS (a pseudorandom protocol with a frequency range of 9 to 22 Hz) during which a second eyes closed QEEG was taken. This was followed by a third QEEG right after stimulation and then a fourth after 15 minutes of rest following termination of the AVS. A final AVS was taken after the patient completed 30 sessions of daily use of the 20 minute AVS protocol over a six-week period. Two follow-up QEEGs were performed in the year following the 30 day training.
Results: The analyses included QEEG spectral investigation as well as LORETA analysis. Considerable agreement was found between the QEEG spectral values and LORETA density values in deeper structures. For example, the QEEG spectral analysis showed the AVS stimulation decreased delta at T3 during stimulation and 15 minutes afterward and then after the 30 session training some 12 weeks later. The LORETA showed a decrease in delta in the left temporal, Brodmann Area 42 and in the superior temporal gyrus temporal lobe after the AVS and then after the 30 session training. Results from the follow-up QEEGs and the LORETAs derived from them will be discussed.
Conclusions: The AVS appears to produce improvement in the current density of various brain regions that are involved in Alzheimer’s Disease progression. The results appear as

early as the first AVS stimulation period and last through the continuation of the 30 session training period with no or minimal decrease in results. The QEEG results generally agree with the LORETA but, of course, do not delineate the deeper structure condition. The results of the follow-ups will help determine if the AVS effects hold up even as the Alzheimer’s progression occurs.

Budzynski, T., Jordy, J., Budzynski, H., Tang, H., & Claypoole, K. (1999). Academic performance enhancement with photic stimulation and EDR feedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 3, 11-21.
Nova Tech EEG, Inc. Knoxville, TN (provided the programs to generate LORETA figures and images).
Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D. is an Affiliate Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Leslie Sherlin, B.A. is at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

Description of workshop:
HYLA CASS, M. D. 1608 Michael Lane, Pacific Palisades, Ca., 90272
e-mail: website: www.

Brain Optimizing Nutrients & Herbs
Specific supplement can be used for enhancing mood, memory, and mental performance, and to forestall aging-induced deterioration of mental functioning. These vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbs are also useful in treating such conditions as depression, anxiety, and ADD, where they correct the underlying metabolic imbalances. These nutrients may be combined with neurofeedback for optimal results.

Goals: To inform participants about the use of specific supplements for :
1. enhancing mood, memory and overall mental functioning.
2. protection of the aging brain
3. correcting the metabolic imbalances underlying many common psychiatric conditions

For physicians in your area call:
ACAM (Academy for the Advancement of Medicine) at 800/532-3688;;
Life Extension Foundation at 800/841-5433;
International Society for Orthomolecular Medicine (ISOM): (416) 733-2117;

Biographical Data

Hyla Cass, M.D., is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, and the author of the best-selling St. John's Wort: Nature's Blues Buster (Avery, 1998), Kava: Nature's Answer to Stress, Anxiety, and Insomnia (Prima, 1998) and All About Herbs (Avery, 1999), as well as numerous articles and book chapters. Her newest book, Natural Highs will be released in Spring 2002. Integrating nutritional medicine with psychiatry in her clinical practice, she has been treating patients successfully with a variety of supplements for many years. Her areas of expertise include stress reduction, women's health (including natural hormone therapy), and natural treatments for ADD, ADHD, addictions, anxiety disorders, and depression.

A noted speaker, consultant, and educator in the areas of complementary medicine, psychiatry, and personal growth, Dr. Cass is also a corporate and media consultant, and contributes to numerous books and journals.. A graduate of the University of Toronto School of Medicine, she interned at Los Angeles County - USC Medical Center, and completed a psychiatric residency at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center/UCLA. Her website is

Original mind: the brain's search for its quantum roots (neurotheology panel)
Al Collins

We are close to a unified physical theory encompassing gravity and quantum mechanics, most likely a development of the "string" theories of Witten and others. Even when this theory is discovered, however, physicists for the most part agree that we will never know WHY it is true, why the universe is this way, even why it IS at all. Perhaps these are the wrong questions. More interesting and important may be the question: What about the way the universe is could make it possible for us to be related to "God," either in the sense of the originator of the universe or "that for the sake of which" the universe is and moves (the latter being the way the Yoga psychology of Patanjali would put it).


Jeffrey Satinover, in his ambitious new book The Quantum Brain, claims that the universe is not deterministic but constantly free to create new events, via quantum indeterminacy which is amplified in the brain. We could not be related to the originator without that direct link. But more is required: something in our brain’s makeup, and therefore implied by the ultimate string theory, that turns us in the direction of our origin. This is where "neurotheology" comes in. Spiritual experiences can be seen as potentialities—perhaps inevitabilities—built into the organism precisely so that we will orient toward the ultimate. Even science, the drive to understand nature, might be understood in this way. If true, this would make it likely that the ultimate scientific theory would be, if interpreted rightly, a spiritual theory. Neurotheology then would not be merely a reductionistic way to explain experiences of God or spiritual enlightenment, but rather a science pointing us toward the reason we are built as we are. It might even help to point physicists in the right direction in pursuit of the ultimate "theory of everything."

The alpha self: Where am I in the fields of the brain? (30 min. plenary talk)
Al Collins

Rodolfo Llinas, Roy John’s colleague at NYU, has elaborated a perspective on the brain that sees it as organized around the self, which he defines as an image of the organism taken as a whole. Thought and action are based on experiences that he calls qualia, or a sense of the qualities of the environment evaluated in terms of the self. This is not just true of humans, but has been evolving in all motile creatures (not plants) for 700 million years. The primary job of the mind, which Llinas sees as an organ in the service of the self, is to predict the future satisfaction of the self and act intentionally to maximize this.

If the self is so fundamental a fact, it might be expected that its signature could be found in the EEG. A clue as to where it might found is suggested in Barry Sterman’s work on "post reinforcement synchronization," or PRS. Sterman observes that the true reinforcement is not the desired object, or even the pleasurable experience of consuming it, but brain events following this that are signified by a burst of dominant alpha. Now if Llinas is correct, the organism is constantly working to satisfy the self. The brain is always ahead of itself, reaching into the future to make things well for the organism, through its image the self. When it succeeds, for a moment, in actualizing the projection of self satisfaction, alpha happens. This is to say that moments of PRS, the alpha bursts following reinforcement, may signify self satisfaction, a state where the sense of self is full and complete, not assailed by qualia of lack and suffering. In a different context, this phenomenon is similar to what meditation researchers have found: long term practitioners of Transcendental Meditation typically show massive amounts (up to 100 uV) of low frequency coherent alpha over the front and center of the head. This occurs in a subjective state free of sensory content or thoughts and characterized by deep contentment (Sanskrit ananda). If we see this alpha as akin to the PRS, it suggests that the state is not necessarily dependent on the satisfaction of the self’s episodic wishes for pleasure and the avoidance of pain. It may be that an experience of wholeness of self is the complete reward, the true but unknown aim of all reward seeking.

Quantum Yoga and the neurophysiology of freedom (2 hour workshop)
Al Collins

A central paradox in modern physics was paralleled nearly 2000 years ago in India, in the spiritual psychology of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra. While psychophysical reality is, at almost all levels, completely deterministic (operating through the implacable law of karma for Patanjali, of Newtonian physics for Western science) at its heart lies a space of total freedom. The central insight of Yoga is that the true human self (purusha) is eternally free and unbound by the ties of materiality (prakriti) which, at the deepest level, operate only "for the sake of" this self (the word is purushartha, "for purusha’s sake"). In physics, the quantum level is completely nondeterministic, though at all levels above this the quantum effects are "averaged away," leaving the world for all intents and purposes bound by the laws of classical physics.

It has recently been suggested by Jeffrey Satinover (The Quantum Brain) that the absolute indeterminacy of the quantum level of reality is "amplified upward" through the physical, chemical, biological, and neural realms to the point where, in the human brain (or its cyber successors) genuine freedom is possible. In fact, the history of evolution shows a gradual, and now accelerating increase in the freedom of organisms. The parallel between Satinover’s understanding and that of Yoga is striking and, I think, genuine. This workshop will aim to go deeper into this strange nexus of Indian "mysticism" and Western science, looking specifically for brain processes that might embody quantum events and those that could correspond to the purusha idea. I will try to convey some of the authentic sense of the Yoga texts by looking at the original Sanskrit verses to get a deeper feel for what they are saying. Similarly, I will try to go deeply enough into Satinover’s argument to show how he thinks freedom can exist in a mostly deterministic world. Some of the same neurophysiology may be implicated in both perspectives.

Al Collins, Ph.D. is a clinical psychologist and also an Indologist, a specialist in the languages and literatures of India. He holds Ph.D.s in both areas and has long had a deep interest in understanding the connections between Western psychology and psychophysiology, on the one hand, and the spiritual psychologies of India (Yoga, Vedanta, Mahayana Buddhism). He has published extensively on Indian and Western self psychology and Jungian psychology. He is the author of the book Fatherson: a Depth Psychology of the Archetypal Masculine as well as book chapters on masculine psychology.

Al was formerly on the core faculty of the California Institute of Integral Studies (CIIS) in San Francisco as Associate Professor of East/West Psychology. He remains on the adjunct faculty at CIIS and also an external reader for Ph.D. dissertations at the Pacifica Graduate Institute. Al
practices neurofeedback and QEEG in Anchorage, Alaska, along with Jungian psychotherapy.

Supervenience, Brain, Mind, and Neurofeedback
Tom Collura

Recent developments in the philosophy of mind have produced a body of work that clarifies issues regarding the relationship between brain and mind, the reduction of mental phenomena into the realms of biology, chemistry, and physics, and the causal relationships between intention, free will, and action. The concept of supervenience, originally articulated in the moral philosophy of G.E. Moore and R.M. Hare, has taken center stage in this work, and has led to precise, albeit controversial, statements of what we might believe or disbelieve about how the mind influences the brain, how the converse may be true, and how, perhaps, neither point of view may ultimately prevail.

Supervenience clearly delineates relationships between sets of properties, and can be applied to the mental and physical realms, providing a valuable conceptual framework. Simply put, one set of properties supervenes on a second set, if any two entities that are identical in the second set cannot differ in the first set. The key issue becomes one of indiscernibility, which can be shown to be relevant to issues of ontological primacy, priority, and even explanation, while avoiding the historic pitfalls of searching for causality, identity, and even the infamous "reality" that has eluded scientists, theologists, and philosophers for ages. Certain arguments, for example, lead to the conclusion that there is, logically and scientifically, a basis for a unified field of consciousness, the existence of a shared Cartesian soul, and pockets of "free will" embedded within the chemical/biological substrate that we call the brain. Questions such as "can a machine be conscious" become approachable, as does the question "what is it to be conscious?"

It will also be seen that concepts from Tibetan Buddhist writing are relevant, and even helpful, when regarded from within this framework. In particular, we shall see that there is a crisis in our notion of the brain/mind relationship, and that zen insights may help us to find our way out of conceptual cages of our own creation. ("How do you get the goose out of the bottle?" "There, it's out!")

These seemingly trivial concepts create the foundation of a systematic thought process that may become as important as the invention of the number "zero" was to mathematics, or the concept of "empty" was to chemistry (Oxygen was discovered by finding out when it was not present).
It thus becomes possible to ask whether EEG rhythms supervene on brain states and/or mind states, or whether these states supervene on EEG rhythms, and to put neurofeedback into a conceptual framework that clarifies and informs the relevant physiological and clinical data. The facts surrounding neurofeedback can provide important considerations for these studies and, in turn, philosophically precise thinking may become critical to the rigorous progress of future neurotheraputic thought. Thought experiments such as the "Star Trek" transporter problem ("Exactly who or what goes where when?") and the "Brain in a Bottle" ("prove to yourself that you are not a brain in a bottle") become more tractable as we examine our thought processes in a systematic and thorough manner.

It will be argued that there is a need for a new area of "high information physics" that has new causal laws and relationships, in much the same way that relativity theory, quantum mechanics, and high-energy physics introduced new laws that were invisible at the macroscopic level, but took profound hold at the microscopic and cosmologic levels.

This talk will describe the concepts of supervenience in the mind/body problem, and outline the strict reasoning process that characterizes modern philosophy of mind. In the same ways that insights from theoretical physics have had a dynamic interplay with the development of modern philosophical concepts, it will be seen that the new psychophysics, especially as embodied in the operant conditioning of the EEG, holds promise as a stimulating and informative conceptual soil upon which the philosophy of mind may find welcome support and nourishment. Ultimately, just as chemistry and physics have sent us to the moon and allowed us to put thinking machines into tiny chips of silicon, the new neurosciences may allow us to travel to other dimensions, find new realities (or the one we have been looking for all along), and perform the mental equivalent of a moon landing, all from within our own individual and collective minds.


Principles of multichannel neurofeedback
Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D., P.E.
BrainMaster Technologies, Inc.
24490 Broadway Ave.
Oakwood Village, OH 44146
440 232-6000
BrainMaster Technologies, Inc.
Neurofeedback has traditionally been built upon a single-channel model for training. Both monopolar and bipolar derivations have been used, but the EEG has typically been restricted to one channel. This talk will discuss the emerging use of two and more channels for neurofeedback training. A variety of methods are available, and each has its own values and limitations. The topics to be addressed include coherence (increasing and decreasing), two-channel protocols, channel summation and subtraction, and asymmetry protocols. The mathematical expressions for these methods will be presented, and used to explain the resulting training effects. After an initial didactic presentation, a panel will discuss specific approaches and techniques.

Advanced BrainMaster Workshop

Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D., P.E.

BrainMaster Technologies, Inc.

This workshop will provide a hands-on view of advanced techniques using the BrainMaster EEG training system. After a brief but thorough review of basic operation, the following topics will be covered: Designing custom studies, Two-channel protocols, advanced use of sound feedback, coherence training, saving and replaying EEG, performing assessments, and post-session data analysis. Workshop attendees will benefit from prior exposure to the basics of using the BrainMaster system.


Tom Collura is founder and President of BrainMaster Technologies, Inc, Oakwood Village Ohio, where he conducts research and development of EEG neurofeedback systems for clinical and home use. He received an AB in Philosophy of Science and an Sc.B. in Biology from Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (1973), and an MS and Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (1978). He is a registered professional engineer in Ohio and Illinois. He served on the technical staff of AT&T Bell Laboratories from 1978 to 1987, where he supervised silicon integrated circuit technology development and multiuser computer systems engineering. He was on staff with the Department of Neurology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, from 1987 to 1996, where he developed systems for invasive EEG recording and analysis for epilepsy diagnosis and surgical planning and monitoring. He has also served as a consultant to industry in the areas of computerized tomography, digital signal processing, automated radiometry, and electrophysiological telemetry. His current interests focus on the neurophysics of the mind/brain boundary, development of EEG feedback systems, and the use of volitional and nonvolitional techniques for brain modification with applications in neurotherapy, consciousness development, and personal improvement.

Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D., P.E.
BrainMaster Technologies, Inc.
24490 Broadway Ave.
Oakwood Village, OH 44146
440 232-6000
fax 440 232-7171

The Role of Neurofeedback in the Attention Economy: Increasing the Supply of the Scarcest Resource
Jonathan D. Cowan

The scarcest resource in present day organizations is the attention of their employees. This is the essential thesis of "The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business", recently named one of the top 10 business books of the year by The book was written by two noted Accenture (formerly Arthur Andersen) consultants, Drs. Thomas Davenport and John Beck, and published by the Harvard Business School Press. The book has been well promoted, and the ideas are gaining widespread acceptance.

Economic systems are typically based on the competition for scarce resources. Most of the book discusses various techniques for competing for the attention of others. The authors also suggest a breakdown of attention into various subtypes and present a method for modeling these types as they relate to a particular task. Davenport and Beck state that brainwaves would probably be the best way to measure attention, but they do not suggest any way to increase the supply of attention.

Neurofeedback offers a new technological approach that can increase the supply of attention. If it is properly presented to corporations as a performance enhancement tool--not in a medical or therapeutic context--there should be a huge market for this combination of product and service. The recent downsizing of many corporations, which increases the demands on the attention of the remaining employees, also increases the need for training that enhances efficiency and optimizes performance.

Jonathan D. Cowan, Ph.D., is the President and Chief Technical Officer of NeuroTek, LLC. He has developed the Peak Achievement Trainer specifically for performance enhancement training in athletic, corporate, military and educational contexts. He is actively involved in developing new Peak Achievement Training programs for these markets.

WS2 Peak Performance Training Through Neurofeedback: New and Powerfulpproached

Jonathan D. Cowan, Ph.D.

The optimal approach to optimizing performance is to analyze and improve it on a moment to moment basis. We have now developed a neurofeedback method with the precision necessary to actually measure concentration and alertness separately at every moment during the performance of an athletic, study, or work activity, as well as to train the underlying skills. We have also found that it is possible to train the user by providing feedback during their visualization of performance, thereby eliminating problems produced by movement artifacts.

In this workshop, I will explain and demonstrate seven different but complementary types of training which are possible using the Peak Achievement Trainer:

1. Strengthening the ability of the Executive Attention Network to focus attention.

2. Strengthening the ability of the midbrain to intensify alertness/arousal.

3. Train the user to take brief, relaxing microbreaks which recharge the brain.

4. Find the best possible degree of alertness/arousal to perform particular activities optimally.

5. Perform arbitrary sequences of concentration, alertness, and microbreaks.

6. Discover and enhance performance of the sequences which are optimal for particular activities.

7. Perform these sequences despite distractions such as self-talk and crowd noise.

Jonathan D. Cowan, Ph.D., is the President and Chief Technical Officer of NeuroTek, LLC. He has developed the Peak Achievement Trainer specifically for performance enhancement training in athletic, corporate, military and educational contexts. He is actively involved in developing new Peak Achievement Training programs for these markets.

Mapping the energetic conduits of the mind

Frances Fox

Frances Fox will introduce her maps of an energetic infrastructure of conduits that correlates to conduits (nadis) that the mind flows through. She discovered these conduits while using her remote viewing skills to diagnose and heal children with cerebral palsy, autism, ADD and ADHD. After mapping dozens of individuals she found that ADD appears to be an expansion of the conduits that allows the individual to more fully operate outside of the physical dimension that today's Western society understands. The condition of ADD and ADHD she found to be a form of self-correction, the individuals' way to adjust to and conform with societies demands or his own fears. That adjustment or self correction brings with it the usual array of dysfunctions that ADD individuals are known for.

Ordinarily the filaments of this energetic infrastructure extend straight out, allowing the flow of the energy and information in the mind to be uninterrupted and smooth. The filaments of the mind of an individual with ADD are kinked, causing the flow of energy and information to become disjointed, erratic. She will show the mapping of an individual before taking Ritalin, while under the influence of the drug and as the Ritalin wears off. The maps show how the filaments change under the different conditions.


Title and abstract of the talk:

"Mind tech" (light/sound) and "breath-walk" in Alpha/Theta Protocols

accelerate the healing process, especially suited for Trauma release/therapy

Uwe Gerlach, Germany

We are specialized in and have long-time experience with both types of techniques mentioned in the title.

Often it is inevitable to provoke abreactions in trauma therapy, especially if the trauma is severe. Entering and staying at the crossover frenqencies in Alpha/Theta avoids retraumatization.

Fortunately with EEG feedback we have a guidance tool which acts as a mirror for the single steps of trauma therapy. From Valdeane Brown's research we know that abreactions which should be avoided are in the brainwave range of 3 to 6 Hz.

Our goal with patients is to train the alpha/theta 8 Hz crossover region and hold the client during the session in the hypnagogic state for at least say twenty minutes. It is a matter of fact that many clients fall into sleep instead of staying in the hypnagogic state.

This means that both the therapist and client often need lots of sessions until the optimal conditions for crossover states are realized.

The problem is that resistance against trauma release in normal consciousness is great and contraproductive. Using light/sound sessions and "breath walk" makes it easier to "soften" the resistance. The client can exercise these techniques without the guidance of the therapist. Lots of "sessions" can be done by the client without any therapist-