'98 Winter Brain Meeting Abstracts
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Winter Brain Meeting Abstracts Central Archive
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- Biofeedback Industry and FDA Compliance: Dr. Anand Akerkar, Ph.D.
- Chief Executive Officer mdi Consultants, Inc. , 55 Northern Blvd. , Great Neck, NY 11021 Tel# (516) 482-9001 Fax# (516) 482-0186
- E-Mail Anand@mdiconsultants.com website: www.mdiconsultants.com
- For decades, industries such as pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, biologicals, dental etc. have been complying with the FDA regulations and striving. Biofeedback falls into the category of both diagnostics and treatment which has always been found to be both safe and effective. However, the FDA has always felt that biofeedback is not a science, and is probably more like "witchcraft". This statement is not meant to underscore the FDA’s understanding of the subject, but it is a reflection on the attempts that the biofeedback industry has made to gain the scientific recognition it deserves. However, more recently FDA has begun to accept biofeedback as a recognized technique for diagnostic uses.
By complying with FDA regulations including the GMP, filing properly prepared 510(k)s, and/or PMAs, this will certainly help this industry to be in par with the other industries burdened with these same FDA regulations. This presentation will focus on how to comply with FDA in a proactive approach, its pros and cons and the problem if one fails to comply.
- Five years of Neurofeedback in a Public Charter School - Building a Base and Expanding into the Community. John S. Anderson, MA
- A Chance To Grow, Inc./New Visions School - IDS #4011 3820 Emerson Ave. N , Minneapolis, MN 55412 612-521-2266 e-mail - email@example.com
- Report on 34 elementary school students receiving daily AVS training
- Twenty public and fourteen parochial school students received daily Audio/Visual Stimulation (AVS) training in Perham, a small community in northern Minnesota. Pre-testing consisted of the TOVA 7 and teachers and parents completion of the Burks’ Behavior Rating Scale (Burks’). Eight of the students were given more extensive academic testing pre and post training. Students were referred to the program with a variety of learning and behavior problems including attention problems, impulsivity and hyperactivity, reading and other academic delays, anxiety and others.
- Parent permission was obtained using a carefully developed informed consent, which documented the potential negative effects, including the possibility of induced seizure activity from the training. Students received an average of 31 sessions of AVS training with a minimum of 26 and a maximum of 35 sessions out of 38 opportunities. Equipment used was the Comptronics David Paradise XL unit amplified through a 10 person splitter with individual sound and light intensity controls for each participant. "Tru-View" eyesets with white lights were used throughout the study.
- Sessions lasted 20 to 22 minutes. The first 8 sessions consisted of a combination of alpha and theta frequencies. Subsequent sessions utilized a protocol developed by Michael Joyce consisting of cycles of 2 minutes with left brain (right visual field and right ear) stimulation at 18 hz and right brain (left visual field and left ear) stimulation at 12 hz followed by a 30 second ramp to 10 hz bilaterally for 2 minutes and then a repeat of the cycle for 22 minutes. All sessions finished with a 1 minute "soft off" period.
- Results are currently being evaluated and will be presented for the first time at the Futurehealth Conference in Palm Springs. Preliminary results show significant improvement in most measures.
Schools and Clinical Practice - Neurofeedback is not enough. John S. Anderson
- Five years of Neurofeedback (NFB) in the public schools and in clinical practice shows that EEG is not enough. This workshop will present data on more than 100 students plus specific case histories. It will also challenge your assumptions with data on AVS, HSAS, VT, and NPP which address needs that NFB cannot. These methods can be an exciting adjunct to a clinical practice.
- Abstract: Five years of experience using NFB in the public schools and in clinical practice has shown that NFB alone is not sufficient to address all the needs presented by students in the school or by clients in a clinical practice. Other interventions may be more effective and may be necessary before NFB can work. Screening or testing for theses needs and then providing training specific to their resolution can significantly enhance a private practice. It is also a highly effective approach to the difficulties faced by our public and private schools.
- Neurofeedback training was introduced to the Minneapolis Public Schools in 1990. Housed in Shingle Creek School in North Minneapolis, the program saw only a few students but results were encouraging so the program continued. The program moved to Harrison School in 1991 and then found a permanent home in New Visions School in 1992. New Visions School also incorporated other unique educational interventions such as Vision Therapy (VT) and Neuro-Physiological Programming (NPP). It became clear that these interventions were effective for students when NFB was not or was a helpful adjunct to NFB when this was indicated.
- Students who could not perform basic visual processing tasks needed specific visual training exercises to encourage the development of appropriate visual processing skills. Children with poorly developed nervous systems who had mixed hand, foot, and eye dominance needed specific physical exercises repeated daily with sufficient frequency, intensity and duration to encourage age appropriate neurological development.
- These services were grouped loosely under the umbrella of a non-profit agency known as A Chance To Grow, Inc. (ACTG). New Visions School (NVS) was a Public Charter Elementary School begun by ACTG to provide a way to bring these services to underserved children and adults in the inner city of Minneapolis. The gains realized by NVS students were remarkable. Starting with at least a year deficit in reading to be enrolled in NVS, students have made an average of 1.6 years gain in reading level for each year NVS has been in operation. Where they were failing in their previous school placement and falling further and further behind in reading each year, now they were making more than a years gain for each year they were in NVS.
- The services were also available to adults and children from the surrounding community both during the school year and through intensive summer programs. Results for these outside clients were equally impressive and encouraged ACTG to begin the process of raising funds to build an new building to more adequately house all of its programs.
- In 1996 the Speech and Audiology department of ACTG began exploring the use of corrective measures for students with auditory processing deficits. They settled on a standard program developed by Kjeld Johansen of Denmark which uses specifically designed audiotapes to promote optimal hearing levels and right ear dominance. The first year only 10 students received this training and only 7 received pre and post testing. Of these, 6 improved and 4 showed significant improvements.
- Audio/Visual Stimulation (AVS) was introduced on a limited basis in the fall of 1997. Michael Joyce, an associate of ACTG in Perham Minnesota, began a more comprehensive program at the same time. He performed pre and post TOVA’s and parent and teacher Burks’ Behavior Rating Scales with 34 students who received daily AVS sessions focused on increasing mental flexibility. Results were generally quite positive and in some cases were remarkable.
- This workshop will present ways clinicians can incorporate these methods into a private clinical practice and will also cover how to bring these methods into the public and private schools in virtually any area.
- Sources of funding will be discussed including state grants for technology, special education services and demonstration projects.
Treating Depression with the Asymmetry Protocol: Progress and Problems Elsa Baehr, Ph.D.
- Clinical Associate, Dept. of Behavorial Sciences, Northwestern University and Private Practice, Evanston, Il.
- Baehr & Baehr LTD. 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, IL 60201 (708)869-2853 (708)676-1779 fax: (708)869-8070 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- For the past three years we have been using an alpha asymmetry protocol* as an adjunctive treatment for clinical depression. While we have seen apparently remarkable change in a short time in some individuals, we have found that this treatment approach does not work for all types of individuals, and all types of depressions. This paper summarizes our current findings, and discusses some of the problems which have emerged during the treatment process.
- *A patented protocol. Dr. Peter Rosenfeld, Dept. of Psychology Northwestern University Evanston, Il. email@example.com
Combining QEEG and Evoked Potentials for the Classification of Various Psychiatric Behaviors: Toward Improved Differential Diagnosis Donald Bars, Ph.D.; F. LaMarr Heyrend, MD; C. Dene Simpson, PhD; & James C. Munger, PhD
- Donald Bars, Ph.D Treasure Valley NeuroScience Center 411 North Allumbaugh Boise, Idaho 83710
- (208)376-2518 fax# (208)376-2521 e-mail# firstname.lastname@example.org
- This paper discusses the results of an on-going quasi-experimental research project investigating the use of quantitative electronencephalographic (QEEG), visual (VEP), and auditory (AEP) evoked potential studies as aids in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric behaviors in children and adolescents. Participants were 328 individuals (ages 6-18) evaluated during 1995 and 1996. Based upon preliminary clinical research in our laboratory, individuals were classified into four groups, (1) Attention/Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), (2) Affective disorder without VEP indicators of explosive or ruminating behaviors, (3) Affective disorder with VEP indicators of explosive or ruminating behaviors, and (4) mixed ADHD/affective disorder (N=42, 83, 118, 85 respectively).
- Statistical analysis of QEEG absolute power, across all standard revealed that each group could be significantly (all p’s < .001) distinguished by the activity occurring. The outcome of this study suggests that it is possible to utilize electrophysiological data to obtain more precise diagnostic categories associated with ADHD and affective disorders, enhancing therapeutic specificity and outcomes.
- Neurofeedback with Court Ordered Criminal Offenders In & Out of Jail, Alfonso Bermea
- Neurotherapy Consultative Services 2467 SW Kingsrow Road Topeka, Kansas 66614 email@example.com
- Alfonso will present current information on the treatment of clients who have been convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) or convicted of possession of illegal narcotics and those who were drinking when they committed domestic violence and are court ordered to attend and complete drug and alcohol treatment. The information he will share describes a new relationship between Neurofeedback and the criminal justice system. At a time when the courts are searching for an effective alternative to incarceration and recidivism this model of treatment offers much hope.
Workshop Applying Neurofeedback to Criminal Offenders: Alfonso Bermea
- Anyone working with clients who have a history of problems which led to involvement in the criminal justice system will appreciate the information Alfonso will present in this 2 hour workshop. Alfonso will cover the clinical treatment of addictions, alcoholism, drug addiction, post traumatic stress disorder, mild closed head injury, ADD, ADHD, violent behavior, and domestic violence. The issue of interfacing treatment with the court system and developing referrals will be covered. Alfonso will report on the status of Neurofeedback in the criminal justice system focusing on the development of a new model of treatment incorporating Neurofeedback as the foundation for change
- Bio: Mr. Alfonso Bermea Jr. currently lives in Topeka, Kansas where he serves as the Program Coordinator, for the Wellness Addiction Community Treatment Health (WATCH) program. This program is directed by the Life Sciences Institute of Mind Body Health, Inc. under the directors Steve Fahrion, Pat Norris, Carol Snarr and Jeff Nichols all formerly of the Menninger Institute in Topeka. Alfonso's experience in working with violent, addicted criminal and psychiatric populations spans more than decade. Alfonso is recognized for the research he conducted while with the Texas Youth Commission, working with violent and addicted youthful offenders who had committed murder.
- Alfonso is the Chief Executive Officer of Neurotherapy Consultative Services a private company he developed to provide training and consultation nationally and internationally.
Fundamentals of Neurofeedback: The Five Phase Model of CNS Functional Transformation (For the Foundations Course) Valdeane Brown
- 121 Prospect St. Port Jefferson NY 11777 516-473-7317 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Neurofeedback is a breakthrough approach to resolving dysfunction, improving performance and enhancing life experience. However, most of the models and techniques are overly complex and confusing to beginning practitioners. This presentation discusses a simple, yet comprehensive approach to Neurofeedback that integrates all of the other major protocols. Utilizing a Five Phase Model, this core approach gives you a firm functional understanding to how the CNS recovers from dysfunction and returns to its natural state of healthy chaos. From this perspective it becomes possible to understand the underlying core of the clinical practice of Neurofeedback in a way that will simplify the learning process and let you get results quickly – regardless of what brand of equipment you use.
- You will learn:
- -How "theta" is actually composed of three targets frequencies (3, 5 & 7 Hz) each with its own role in health and dysfunction
- -To target augment frequencies precisely and sequentially to treat even the most challenging clients in a safe manner
- -The differential effects of training Alpha (8-12 Hz), SMR (12-15 Hz), Low Beta (15-18 Hz), Aura (19-23 Hz), Peripheral Warmth (26-30 Hz)
- and Shear (38-42 Hz) Rhythms
- -The use of FFT and direct digital filtering systems and their relative roles in clinical decision making and data analysis
- -The value of Cz as a central site for training
What you don't know about NF could fill a book or empty your Practice Part I: The Period 3 Approach to the Chaotic Control Mechanisms Underlying CNS Renormalization Valdeane Brown
- Neurofeedback is an exciting arena in which new discoveries and protocols are emerging at an unprecedented rate. The list of disorders and conditions that respond to Neurofeedback is almost as extensive as the bewildering array of techniques and theories that have promulgated around it.
- The field is limited, however, by linear models of EEG and overly complex neuroanatomical theories. These older ideas have led clinicians to maintain a "sickness" based orientation that is predicated upon discerning the precise disorder afflicting each client and, then, devising a specific treatment for that particular disorder. At best, such linear complexity is unnecessary for developing an effective paradigm for neurofeedback.
- Most of the clinical applications of Neurofeedback have used a single channel of EEG, with multiple bandwidth filters being applied, in order to provide feedback re: ongoing shifts in frequency and amplitude in the EEG signal. These approaches are based on linear mathematical models which assume a one-to-one relationship between feedback targets and clinical change. Thus, for example, an increase in amplitude in a particular frequency range (Beta) is thought to lead to a decrease in a specific symptom (Early Morning Awakening). Although these theories have expanded to include simultaneous inhibits of different bands and to the use of ratios between the inhibit and augment targets (e.g. Theta/Beta ratios and ADD, they remain unidimensional, linear, neuroanatomically anchored and symptom oriented. They have also led to protocols using only minimal sets of auditory and visual feedback in order to keep from "overwhelming the client" with too much information.
- These traditional approaches ignore two critical factors: a.) the EEG signal is non-linear, dynamical, chaotic in structure; andb.). the CNS is non-linear in organization. Four important elements emerge from a close consideration of the non-linearity of the CNS and EEG.
- 1. EEG is not appropriately captured by mathematical tools based on linear transforms (such as FIR, IIR, FFT or even IQM techniques).
- 2. Dysfunction is better characterized in terms of discrete attractors within the spectrum, and functionality is better captured as the ability to fluidly shift amplitudes throughout the spectrum.
- 3. The CNS can not be trained optimally with linear procedures, but requires the use of non-linear, dynamical control mechanisms.
- 4. Since the CNS is non-linear, it is designed to process and respond effectively to incredibly dense stimuli arrays in the midst of very noisy environments so feedback can be complex, differential, syncopated and simultaneous.
- This presentation demonstrates and discusses a radically different approach to Neurofeedback that integrates these ideas and addresses the problems inherent in the older, linear models. The Period 3 Approach trains multiple feedback parameters simultaneously using two discrete, real-time channels of EEG. Unique non-linear, dynamical approaches to threshold setting are utilized in very precise ways that reflect the chaotic structure of the EEG itself. Combining these factors appropriately challenges each hemisphere to disrupt its specific attractors of dysfunction while being chaotically synchronized to basins of functional stability. This directly perturbs the entire CNS to maximally reorganize its dynamical structure and reestablish a healthy degree of chaos – i.e., the adaptive and resilient chaos that is characteristic of vital physiological systems. The goal is to increase the self-regulatory ability of the CNS, not to decrease particular symptoms, so a single, comprehensive theory can be applied effectively to all clinical phenomena -- regardless of the presenting complaint or emergent symptomatology of the client.
What you don’t know about NF could fill a book – or empty your Practice Part II: Clinical Nitty-Gritty of the Period 3 Approach see Sue Dermit
4 hour workshop: Using Non-Linear, Dynamical Control Mechanisms to Simplify and Amplify the Power of Neurofeedback: Moving From the Five Phases to the Period 3 Approach: Valdeane Brown
- Clinical approaches to Neurofeedback are often highly detailed and complex, leading the beginning- and even experienced practitioner, to feel less than adequate in treating the variety of disorders that walk through the clinical door.
- Such complex treatment protocols stem from a viewpoint which places disorder at the hub of our interventions- a "sickness based" model which, much like western medicine, assumes disorders are discrete entities necessitating different and distinct treatment protocols. Under this model, the challenge is to discover the "right" treatment, which is also likely to be "wrong" for another disorder.
- The powerful yet simple strategies to be offered in this "hands-on" presentation stem from a way of working that places self-regulation, not disorder, at its center. We call this paradigm the Period 3 Approach.
- This new approach integrates non-linear, dynamical approaches to control of feedback systems with the clinical wisdom of the prior Five Phase Model of CNS Functional Transformation developed by Dr. Valdeane W. Brown.
- The Period 3 Approach trains multiple feedback parameters simultaneously using two discrete, real-time channels of EEG. Unique non-linear,
- dynamical approaches to threshold setting are utilized in very precise ways that reflect the chaotic structure of the EEG itself. Vital to the
- safety and success of this approach is the use of appropriate inhibits.
- These will be detailed as well as sequences of augments. The extraordinary non-linear results currently noted from the use of an original (21 Hz), and a less commonly used (40 Hz), frequency bands will particularly be addressed, as will working with patients concurrently receiving ECT. You will also discover how you train two very different attentional states on the left and right side of the brain simultaneously, increasing the power of your interventions.
- Combining these factors appropriately challenges each hemisphere to disrupt its specific attractors of dysfunction while being chaotically synchronized to basins of functional stability. This directly perturbs the entire CNS to maximally reorganize its dynamical structure and reestablish a healthy degree of chaos – i.e., the adaptive and resilient chaos that is characteristic of vital physiological systems. The goal is to increase the self-regulatory ability of the CNS, not to decrease particular symptoms, so a single, comprehensive theory can be applied effectively to all clinical phenomena -- regardless of the presenting complaint or emergent symptomatology of the client.
- Neurofeedback is unparalleled as a vehicle for providing the brain with what it works with best- information. Given appropriate information the brain begins to self-regulate more effectively and efficiently. When this happens, a myriad of apparently disparate symptoms drop away. It doesn’t matter if you are talking about anxiety, depression, immune system dysfunction or pain- it is, after all, all the same nervous system.
- The Period 3 Approach is equally applicable to remediation of symptoms as well as training for personal growth, spiritual development and optimal (peak) performance. Its simple and straightforward methods will particularly resonate with:
- __ providers interested in appealing to the "personal growth" market as a means of reducing dependency on managed care;
- __ providers who want to ensure rapid and powerful results while effectively eliminating unwanted side effects;
- __providers challenged by a particularly diverse range of client problems, and
- __ entry level Neurofeedback practitioners who are excited but confused about how best to proceed with development of their own clinical practice.
workshop PROCOMP+/BIOGRAPH SCREEN AND PROTOCOL DEVELOPMENT FOR OPTIMAL CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS
Taught by Valdeane W. Brown Ph.D. and Susan Dermit Ph.D.
While the ProComp+/Biograph system from Thought Technology is incredibly powerful and flexible, learning how to use it can be a daunting task.
We have developed a focussed and intensive workshop that will let you really learn how to make this system come alive for you. It is the only one of its kind. It is the most comprehensive means available to teach you not only the nitty gritty of tailoring the ProComp+/ Biograph system for your own use, but also to assist you in realizing the potential available to you through an in-depth understanding of this innovative system. The material will be presented from the perspective of an original clinical approach. This has evolved partly from cross-fertilization with the field of quantum mechanics, but also, more practically and more recently, through the use of this particular equipment. We have noticed that our way of working has shifted dramatically over the past year. Our earlier conceptualizations still apply, but we no longer experience the limits of our equipment. We find we are able to effect powerful clinical shifts in our clients in a much shorter time, while offering an expanded palette of opportunities to those who work with us. You too, will discover your own exciting and more powerful ways to work as you uncover the possibilities inherent in the system. This course is the just the beginning for you.
You will learn how to:
- -Develop screens that allow your biofeedback practice to come alive.
- -Modify audio qualities, feedback contingencies and display options for maximal client response.
- -Combine screens into protocols that simplify clinical decision making and increase your efficiency and effectivess.
- -Preview the next release of the Biograph system and receive the latest information on anticipated new features.
- -Work with examples of state of the art screens and multimedia presentations based upon the Period 3 and Five Phase Models of CNS Functional Transformation developed by Dr. Brown
Utilizing Multiple Placement Montages and Phase, Coherence, Synchrony and Linear Channel Combination Training Paradigms with the Brownback-Mason Protocol for the Treatment of Dissociation/Addiction , Thomas S. Brownback
Brownback, Mason and Associates, Group Psychological Practice, 1702 Walnut Street Allentown, PA 18104-6741, 610-434-1540 fax 610-434-6775 (not a dedicated line) email@example.com
Last year's presentation on the Brownback Mason Protocol demonstrated how single placement training to increase theta amplitude at the central, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes helped clients to connect with dissociated traunatic material. This year we will look at how to further augment the Brownback Mason Protocol by using multiple placement montages with a variety of additional training paradigms to enhance the speed and vividness of conscious awareness of buried traumatic memories.
Demons, Personalities and Beta4; Tom Brownback
A number of clients who have been sexually and physically abused, especially clients who have been subjected to satanic and ritualistic abuse, have reported experiencing two types of phenomena in their inner world. One phenomena is generally known as personalities or alters and refers to the split off aspects of consciousness which are accompanied by an underlying abnormal EEG pattern. The other phenomena which some clients report and which is very subjectively different is that there are actual spiritual entities which they believe to be demons. These two phenomena will be discussed as well as the the need for different treatment strategies (which include neurotherapy).
(workshop)The Brownback-Mason Protocol Utilizing Neurotherapy with Dissociation/Addiction Thomas S. Brownback
- The Brownback-Mason Protocol is a fully integrated therapeutic approach incorporating EEG biofeedback for the treatment of dissociation. Dissociation is the splitting off of consciousness from a person's identity. This "splitting off" process is based in trauma. Trauma affects the brain anatomically, neurologically and biochemically. Traumatic verses non-traumatic memories are stored in the brain in different places and in different ways.
- Until recently the only means of accessing this traumatically stored material has been through psychotherapy, hypnotherapy and guided imagery. These methods are typically slow, often requiring ten or more years to achieve full integration.
- When using the Brownback-Mason Protocol the following results have been attained:
- 1. A significant increase in the ability to access the dissociated material.
- 2. The time to accomplish full integration is reduced by as much as 70%.
- 3. Clients experience a heightened sense of mastery over their lives.
- What you will learn in this workshop:
- 1. How and why the EEG of a dissociative differs from a normal EEG.
- 2. Where and how traumatic versus non-traumatic memories are stored.
- 3. How using the Brownback-Mason Protocol will promote normalization of the EEG.
- 4. Why monitoring one or two bands of EEG are not enough to produce the most effective results.
- 5. How to do full spectral training in order to attain attentional flexibility.
- Thomas S. Brownback is a licensed psychologist in the state of Pennsylvania, and is nationally certified in biofeedback therapy, neurotherapy, quantitative EEG and addictions. He is the Executive Director of Brownback, Mason and Associates, a group psychological private practice in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Tom has worked in the area of dissociation for over twenty years and has been directly involved in the treatment of over one hundred cases. He has appeared on national television concerning his work in this area. Tom has been asked to speak at conventions and conferences around the country about the Brownback-Mason Protocol which utilizes neurotherapy in the treatment of dissociation/addictions. Therapists and clients from across the country come to his office for intensive training and intensive outpatient treatment.
QEEG in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Thomas H. Budzynski
- SynchroMed, LCC & the Dept. of Psychosocial & Community Health, Univ. of Washington
- 5148 NE 54th Street, Seattle WA 98105 206-525-2940 F 206-545-6833 firstname.lastname@example.org
- Quantified EEG techniques may be useful in the diagnosis of certain disorders. An early study by Billiott, Budzynski and Andrasik (1997) involved the monitoring of the EEG from Cz in 28 chronic fatigue patients and 28 matched normals. The CFS group showed a significant magnitude increase in certain theta bands and a decreased peak alpha frequency compared to normals when under stress. In an ongoing study at the University of Washington we are examining the QEEG’s of identical twins one of whom has CFS. Although the study is double blinded and the code is still unbroken, we have discerned certain maladaptive EEG patterns. The results obtained thus far will be discussed
2 hr ws Optimizing EEG Signatures In The Elderly With Neurofeedback and AVS Augmentation Tom Budzynski, Ph.D
As much as one-third of the population over the age of 65 suffers from memory problems as well as other cognitive deficits. Our population is aging at its fastest rate in history. There is a rapidly growing need for techniques that can help with these cognitive problems. Cognitive health in old age goes hand-in-hand with physical health. Animal studies are quite clear with regard to the effects of environmental stimulation on the mental as well as the physical health of even aged animals. Cerebral blood flow and EEG studies document the gradual changes that occur with age. Stress effects on short-term memory are considerable and must be taken into consideration as well. Photic stimulation acts to increase cerebral blood flow as does certain types of neurofeedback. Even audiocassette tapes can be used to reduce stress and improve the EEG signature in the elderly. The research with all three of these applications would suggest that a program which incorporates all of them would be especially beneficial to those otherwise healthy elderly individuals who complain of cognitive deficits. The neurofeedback parameters that may be the most helpful will be discussed as well as the research on all three applications.
Developing Windows Based Biofeedback Applications; Sam Caldwell
- Expanded Technologies inc. 8317 Ashbourne Dr. Shreveport, LA 71106 318 865-5941 Fax 865-9755 email@example.com
- When I began developing biofeedback applications in the late 70's, design decisions centered around selecting the best hardware platform ( e.g., Apple, Commodore, Rockwell ). With the introduction of the IBM PC and MSDOS, hardware became less and less of an issue until the mid 80's when developing software for IBM and MSDOS became a requirement for staying competitive.
- For the last five or six years design decisions have shifted to the pros and cons of developing mission critical biofeedback software using DOS versus Microsoft Windows. Our decisions have been profoundly influenced by the realization that personal computer hardware design is driven by Microsoft Windows. The current crop of multimedia machines are obviously designed to run Windows applications with little concern for the user wishing to run legacy DOS applications. A sterling example of the lack of support for DOS is the, almost universal, absence of DOS compatible mouse drivers on newer computers.
- When arguments are made for DOS versus Microsoft Windows as platforms for mission critical applications the complexity and perceived fragility of Windows is often cited as reason to opt for DOS. The second most common argument maintains that Windows is inherently slower than DOS and the multitasking features of Microsoft Windows introduce unacceptable latencies in processing real-time data.
- The current focus on Windows compatibility by computer manufacturers coupled with advances in both data acquisition software and hardware significantly weaken these arguments. In fact, the movement away from DOS by computer manufacturers and Microsoft actually makes it much more difficult to develop, maintain and support DOS applications which will run reliably on today's multimedia computer.
- The current release of Windows 95 is significantly more reliable than previous iterations and peripheral hardware, such as printers, frequently take advantage of Windows 95 plug and play reducing complications and problems often seen when assembling complex systems.
- If necessary, problems arising from conflicts with concurrently running programs can be handled by requiring the operator restrict processing to the more demanding biofeedback software.
- Concerns over latency have been addressed by incorporating buffers in both data conversion hardware and signal processing algorithms.
- Properly implemented, buffers allow data to be sampled, processed and displayed at aggregate rates of up to 200,000 samples per second without missing or dropping data. The current offerings of multimedia computers with clock speeds well in excess of 133 MHz, high speed RAM and hard disks make the relatively slow acquisition and processing speeds required for most biofeedback applications easily achievable.
- The dazzling array of multimedia options, expanded resources made available by multitasking and availability of inexpensive plug-ins and third party software add-ons make the decision to develop biofeedback Windows based applications compelling.
A Comprehensive Performance Enhancement Strategy; Dennis Campbell
- 818-789-3491 F 818 788-6137 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
- Mental fitness has come to be appreciated as the key differentiator between great and not-so-great performers at all levels, in all disciplines. EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) has proven itself to be useful in training control of arousal and attention as well as training mental flexibility and stability, mostly in a clinical, pathology-oriented context. The use of neurofeedback for performance enhancement applications has come to be dominated by relatively simplistic, one-dimensional protocols that, although somewhat beneficial, reflect little of the rigor and breadth found in modern clinical applications. The result is that much of the possible benefit to be derived from neurofeedback for performance enhancement is being neither offered nor gained. This presentation offers the beginnings of a comprehensive model for the application of neurofeedback and other frequency based technologies to performance enhancement, drawn from current neurophysiological theory, non- pathology-oriented assessment methods and successful clinical outcomes.
- 1. Performance Types: Some Common and Unique Requirements
- a. Repetitive action versus novelty
- b. Reaction versus initiation
- c. Simple versus complex
- 2. Assessment Methods: Where is the Process Breaking Down?
- a. Continuous performance task evaluation
- b. Evaluation of attentional and interaction styles
- c. Progress measurement
- 3. Protocol Selection: Application of Available Tools
- a. Training arousal and attention
- b. Training relaxation and readiness
- c. Releasing and reprogramming
- 4. Comprehensive Performance Enhancement Model
- a. The Performance Cycle
- b. The right tool for the job
Neurofeedback and Enhancing Golf Performance Brain Wave Training and Its Effect on Golf Performance
Dan Chartier Life Quality Resources 8404 Glenwood Ave. Suite B Raleigh, NC 27612 (919)782-4597 fax(919)782-6800
NeuroNavigators, an applied research group, selected at random golfers of different skill levels to see if helping golfers to manage their mind had a positive effect on improving their skills. The methodology blended neurofeedback technology, behavior change strategies, assessments, and coaching. The researchers--Dan Chartier (Ph.D.), Larry Collins (Ed.D.), and Darren Koons (M.S.)--wanted tosee if after training the participants shot lower scores, struck the ball sweeter, managed the mental side of the game better, and controlled stressful situations. As measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS), an instrument used to measure mood states of sthletes, participants decreased the negative factors of tension, anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and fatigue while increasing their levels of energy and vigor. They reduced their eighteen-hole scores by an average of eight (8) strokes with a notable exception, namely, severl golfers who shot consistently in the 90’s recorded a 79 for their first time. Rsearch Format and Results Data from pre-and-post training golf scores and Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores show that neurofeedback (EEG) training has a beneficial effect on improving golf skills. Fifteen subjects completed 10 EEG training sessions and practiced a series of mind-body skilll integration sessions. The EEG training included a protocol that provided audio feedback contingent onthe simultaneous presence of three frequencies above a selected threshold. The skill integration practice included: (1) sensationalization and visulaization of perfect performance of a selected golf skill while maintaining targeted EEG activity, and (2) actual practice of the skill while attempting to produce the mind-body state achieved during the feedback training. Fourteen of the participants reported significant improement in their ability to strike the ball better, more consistently, more confidently, and more accurately. They stated they were able to putt more smothly, judge distances from the cup more accurately, and sense (feel) the putt better. They reported an increase in both their ability to focus anc concentrate. Twelve of the participants completed pre-and post training Profile of Mood States (POMS). The POMS resulkts for 10 of those 12 subjects showed development of what is called an "Iceberg Profile", a pattern of scores that is typically found in elite athletes. This is where the factors of tension, depression, anger, fatigue and confusion are reduced below the 50th T Score and factor of vigor is augmented above the 5oth T Score. In addition to improvement in their golf game and development of mood states seen in elite athletes, a number of participants also reported significant improvement in physical and mental health. Although medical and psychological symptoms were not a focus of this study, several subjects reported remission of troubling physical symptoms including muscle spasm pain and angina. Reports of psychological changes included improved concentration and coping with stress.
Dynamical Considerations Underlying EEG Modification Training; Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D., P.E.
- Consultant P.O. Box 24450 Cleveland, OH 44124 (216) 347-0422 email@example.com
- This talk will consider the dynamical processes underlying EEG signals, and their implications for EEG modification training. The following issues arise: EEG signals are, in and of themselves phenomenological in nature, and reflect certain types of physiological, anatomical, and dynamical properties and activities of the brain tissue. By training and modifying EEG phenomena, we induce changes in the nervous system, hopefully toward
- some desired end. On the other hand, mental functioning, intellect, behavior, and other properties of interest (attention, awareness, attitude, etc), are emergent properties of the brain/mind, which arise in a complex way, from lower-level activities in the nervous system.
- We specifically address EEG phenomena such as the generation (or suppression) of specific frequency bands, training for generalized EEG suppression, training with complex feddback (phase-space, other displays), and DC or slow brain potentials. Each of these has a particular constellation of effects that it produces in the neural tissue. Overall, it is important to distinguish localized vs. diffuse brain phenomena, and to address the relationship between EEG functional topography and EEG training in a physiologically sound, yet general manner.
Cliff Corman Tova 7.1 and Other New Developments
- Frontal Wide-Band Suppression: The Clearest Feedback for Concentration by Jonathan D. Cowan, Ph.D., BCIACEEG
- NeuroTechnology, Inc. 1103 Hollendale Way, Goshen, KY 40026 502-228-0605 F502-228-5228
I have developed a protocol for training one-pointed focus that is much more sensitive and selective than any previous concentration protocol. My clinical experience indicates that, within the first 3-4 minutes, almost every naive trainee can understand that visually focussing on a small screen object makes it move reliably in a particular direction. Soon afterwards, usually within the first 6 minutes, they learn to reliably produce these changes, and can then do so for longer and longer time periods. Within the first session, most trainees can also learn to focus their attention on specific parts of their body or subtle details of conversation. This is in contrast to other neurofeedback protocols, which take longer to learn because they are far less clearly related to concentration. This new neurofeedback protocol rewards the trainee for suppressing a wide frequency band of EEG at the frontal location (AFz) that overlies the anterior cingulate formation, which has been suggested to be the central portion of the Executive Attention Network (by Posner and Raichle in Images of Mind). It was developed by following up the studies of Dr. Barry Sterman on B2 bomber pilots and other subjects doing continuous performance tests.
Complex Closed Head Injury Bob Crago
- NeurobehavioralHealth Svcs , 5363 East Pima, Suite 100 Tucson, AZ 85712
- (520)323-0062 (520)747-3136 fax: (520)323-1336 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Case of Pseudo-Dementia with Pre, Post qEEG; Bob Crago
Is There A Neurofeedback Tsunami; R. Adam Crane BCIA Senior fellow, BCIAEEG, NRNP Diplomate
- 24 Browning Drive, Ossining, NY 10562 1.800.424.6832 http://MindFitness.com Whatis@MindFitness.com
- SYNCHRONY training is of great interest to many Neurofeedback practitioners. As multiple channel Neurofeedback systems come into fashion synchrony strategies will become critically important to this field. However, there seems to be a number of opinions about what synchrony means. We hope to add to the confusion by explaining our views. We will also explain why we feel synchrony training is an important part of Neurofeedback's present and an even more important part of its future.
- Stroebel, Fehmi, Green and others came to the view that there was a special relationship between EEG Synchrony and quality of some mind states in the early 70's. This insight came as a result of measuring the synchrony present as unusually gifted individuals demonstrated relatively high orders of perception and self regulation. Not many are aware that the Nobel Laureate Francis Crick, coming from the traditional neuroscience "Binding" theory of consciousness, is reported to have suggested that EEG Synchrony may be the most accessible and practically usable signature of consciousness.
- Our considerable experience with synchrony training has convinced us that it has substantial applications with problem patients including Alpha P and Minus types. However, we believe that synchrony will play an even greater role in Performance / Life Enhancement training. The value of right / left hemispheric synchrony training is widely recognized but less is known about rear /frontal ( we think it is at least as important.) Our views are based on clinical observations and hypothetical, as much more controlled research needs to be done.
2 hr workshop Performance/Life Enhancement Training Integrating Biofeedback With special Emphasis on Neurofeedback R. Adam Crane BCIA Senior fellow, BCIAEEG, NRNP Diplomate
- One of the most promising trends emerging in healthcare is assisting functional people in becoming more functional and treating subclinical symptoms. Performance Enhancement will probably grow exponentially in the near future. Neurofeedback opens a niche allowing practitioners expansion into this area. We have been Providing Performance Enhancement training since the 1970s (executives, writers, musicians, actors, models, athletes, etc.) enabling the development of heuristic strategies embodied in The Process(tm).
- The Process, designed to appeal to the "Actualizer" segment of the Value Added Lifestyle Survey, targets business, sports, education, art, and personal growth. "Actualizers" are trend setters, practice builders and the group most responsible for the evolution of biofeedback, integrative, complementary and alternative medicine.
- This innovative combination of strategies seeks to solve the problems attendant to delivering Neurofeedback / Performance Enhancement Training to the public individually and in small groups using qualified practitioners, inexpensive personal EEG trainers (with or without computerized systems) and a powerful, heuristic program designed to stand on its own with or without Neurofeedback.
- The Sense of Mission is enhanced by synthesizing Logotherapy, Psychology of Mind (Awareness), Quantum Physics, Chaos and Systems Theory, The New Economics, Voluntary Simplicity, Profound Attention, Exersize.
- We will discuss techniques for working with difficult EEG clients, integration of computerized Neurofeedback and Synchrony training. Demonstrations subject to time and equipment availability.
- Goals of this workshop include presenting our rationale for the surge of interest in Biofeedback assisted MindFitness programs and going as deeply as possible into the philosophy behind and architecture of The Process training strategies and business models .
- BIO: R. Adam Crane, BCIAC Senior Fellow, BCIAEEG, NRNP Diplomate has been training professionals in Neurofeedback, traditional biofeedback (including APA accredited BCIA and Neurofeedback clinical certification) and developing innovative training, and biofeedback technology for 28 years. President American BioTec (Health Training Seminars), co-developer of CapScan, The Process, numerous Biofeedback products and services.
Neurofeedback; The Ramblings of An Engineer: Frank Deits
- Focused Technology PO Box 13127 Prescott, AZ 86304 520-771-8697 F520- 778-5822 www.focused-technology.com email@example.com
- Engineers are inherently troubleshooters and are inwardly driven to look for "what's wrong". This is in contrast to the clinician who is interested in "what works". Both approaches have their blind spots leading to strange outcomes. Since most of this conference will be directed toward "what works", this presentation will be directed toward some of our assumptions and "what's wrong".
What you don’t know about NF could fill a book – or empty your Practice Part II: Clinical Nitty-Gritty of the Period 3 Approach: Sue Dermit
- Zengar Institute 121 Prospect St. Port Jefferson, NY 11777 516-473-7317, 516-473-0051 fax: (516)473-7317 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Clinical approaches to neurofeedback are often highly detailed and complex, leading the beginning- and even experienced practitioner, to feel less than adequate in treating the variety of disorders that walk through the clinical door.
- Such complex treatment protocols stem from a viewpoint which places disorder at the hub of our interventions- a "sickness based" model which, much like western medicine, assumes disorders are discrete entities necessitating different and distinct treatment protocols. Under this model, the challenge is to discover the "right" treatment which is also likely to be "wrong" for another disorder.
- The powerful yet simple strategies to be offered in this presentation stem from a way of working that places self-regulation, not disorder, at its center. We call this paradigm the Period 3 Approach. Neurofeedback is unparalleled as a vehicle for providing the brain with what it works with best- information. Given appropriate information the brain begins to self-regulate more effectively and efficiently. When this happens, a myriad of apparently disparate symptoms drop away. It doesn’t matter if you are talking about anxiety, depression, immune system dysfunction or pain- it is, after all, all the same nervous system.
- Participants will be presented with a method of intervention standard for all individuals (yes, you read that right!), with the treatment emphasis being adjusted according to real time "reading of your data" as well as client symptoms. As such you are not treating according to pre-determined rules of thumb so much as where the client actually is at that time. As the client’s central nervous system becomes increasingly normalized, symptoms recede. Clients will be able to tolerate training across all frequencies regardless of presenting complaint. Inability to tolerate training at any particular frequency (e.g. beta) demonstrates that the brain is not yet appropriately self-regulating, rather than an intrinsic inability to tolerate beta per se.
- Vital to the safety and success of this approach is the use of appropriate inhibits. These will be detailed as well as sequences of augments. The extraordinary non-linear results currently noted from the use of an original (21 Hz), and a less commonly used (40 Hz), frequency bands will particularly be addressed, as will working with patients concurrently receiving ECT. You will also discover how you train two very different attentional states on the left and right side of the brain simultaneously, increasing the power of your interventions.
- The Period 3 Approach is equally applicable to remediation of symptoms as well as training for personal growth, spiritual development and optimal (peak) performance. Its simple and straightforward methods will particularly resonate with:
- -providers interested in appealing to the "personal growth" market as a means of reducing dependency on managed care;
- -providers who want to ensure rapid and powerful results while effectively eliminating unwanted side effects;
- -providers challenged by a particularly diverse range of client problems, and
- -entry level neurofeedback practitioners who are excited but confused about how best to proceed with development of their own clinical practice.
A Proposed Paradigm of Observed Relationships Between Attention Styles, Brain Activity, Arousal, Performance & Personal Experience. Les Fehmi, Ph.D.
317 Mt. Lucas Road, Princeton, NJ 08540 609-924-0782 F 609-924-0782 email@example.com
A systemization of observations regarding the relationship between attention styles, brain activity, arousal, performance and personal experience will be articulated in graphic form. A derived model describes a possible neural mechanism which underlies the sense of presence (the sense of awareness) and its dissolution. A common example is when a part of the diffuse background of perception emerges into foreground. We call this the subject/object split; (or awareness/content of awareness split); when the foreground again merges into the background we call it "subject/object dissolution" (awareness/content dissolution). It is proposed that there are specific neural activity patterns that are associated with each event and that these patterns may also be trained and are associated with achievable attention styles, arousal levels, performance and personal experience.
The Clinical Applications of a Model Which Relates Attention Processes, Neural Activity, Arousal Level, Performance and Personal Experience Les Fehmi, Ph.D. & Susan Shor-Fehmi, C.S.W.
This workshop will describe a model of attention in detail by delineating the qualities of various attention states and by discussing how each state corresponds to specific neural activity patterns. How attention states and neural activity directly impact arousal, performance and personal experience will be discussed. Once a theoretical understanding of attention and its correlates is achieved, clinical applications will be presented along with useful techniques and exercises for facilitating the easy movement between attention states and corresponding neural patterns and arousal levels. We will continue on to illustrate how performance and personal experience are effected by attentional and neutral flexibility. These techniques will be demonstrated to and practiced by participants. Our goal is to give participants a practical sense of how attention is the most fundamental behavior we engage in and how it shapes the perception of the world around and within us. It is also our goal to provide each participant with a new experiential repertoire of attentional choices and the skill to employ these choices for appropriate clinical ends.
DYNAMICAL CONSIDERATIONS UNDERLYING EEG MODIFICATION TRAINING: PART II Robert F. Fischer, MD
2700 Eureka Way, Suite 100 Redding, CA 96001
This talk will build upon Tom Collura's presentation of "Dynamical Considerations Underlying EEG Modification Training: Part I" by continuing the exploration of mind as "process" rather than "thing". I will introduce concepts embodied in the Santiago Theory of Cognition developed by Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela of Chile. And I will briefly review the theories of self organizing systems, cybernetics and autopoiesis (a term introduced by Maturana that describes the pattern underlying the phenomenon of self organization or autonomy that is characteristic of living systems).
This exploration will help us broaden our theoretical perspectives, enabling us to construct a framework within which we can both discuss and understand the meaning and effects of providing EEG feedback to a comlex organizational system ---a human being.
It will help us better understand and identify the significant factors contributing to and resulting in beneficial/therapeutic clinical changes in our clients, recognizing that perhaps the essence of these therapeutic changes is related to a change or changes in the "connectivity" of the complex networks of our integrated and reciprocal neuro-endo-immune systems.
I will utilize the concept of structural coupling as defined by Maturana and Varela to provide a framework that will enable us to understand relationships between ourselves and the world around us as well as between ourselves and our inner worlds.
These approaches will highlight limitations of the DSM 3 diagnotic system while also providing an opportunity to explain how many clinicians using many varied and different approaches such as Och's, Wall, the Othmers and Lubars can attain significant favorable therapeutic results. This approach can also explain how a seemingly linear therapeutic procedure (i.e. training for a specific EEG wave frequency) can result in benefits for a seemingly diverse group of DSM 3 diagnostic categories.
Finally I will introduce our concept of primary and secondary synaptic training and its applications to optimum performance training with clients.
AUTHENTIC VOICE; A TWO-HOUR EXPERIENTIAL WORKSHOP with Singer/Songwriter Jan Garret
- Foolchild Music 5306 Canta Loupa Avenue Van Nuys, CA 91401 (818)787-5545 Jazzjan@flash.net
- Authentic: That which can be believed or accepted. Genuine, real.
- Author: Creator, originator.
- Authority: Power or influence resulting from practical knowledge. Self-assurance & expertise that comes from experience.
- Voice: The physical, tangible, and audible extension of breath.
- Breath is life-force energy.
- Inspiration=In breath.
- Expression=Out breath.
- Reminder: You are not breathing yourself.
- What/Who is?
- The human voice is a natural bio-feedback system. Everybody has one. It's free, portable, and intimately accessible 24 hours a day. It is a 100% accurate auditory interface between the inner and outer worlds. By extension it includes our artistic voice and our voice in the larger community.
- In this workshop you will learn (and be able to teach clients):
- 1) How to lighten up.
- 2) How to listen and respond creatively to what you hear, see, feel, and sense.
- 3) How to be present in time, space, and your own body through
- a) Conscious awareness
- b) Breath
- c) Movement
- d) Sound
- 4) Key exercises to give all aspects of yourself a voice, balance your energy, amplify and enrich your personal sound, and strengthen your power supply.
- 5) The unbendable Aikido arm technique and how it relates to
- a) Attention
- b) Intention
- 6) Practical benefits of toning, chanting, and singing for yourself and
- with others (even if you think you can't carry a tune.)
- 7) Useful & encouraging ways to play it by ear: Improvisation in music and life.
Some milestones in the healing process and a higher functioning of the brain" Dr. Uwe Gerlach, Germany
- Bettinger Str. 104, D-79639-Grenzach-Wyhlen, Tel. 0049-7624-980636, Fax -981319, e-mail: CompuServe 101362,1022 and firstname.lastname@example.org
- 1) The genuine inner healer can only be activated if the clients mind is driven by an inner wisdom and discipline.
- 2) In general the observation is valid that mostly more complex and intellectual people become seriously interested in developing their own mind.
- 3) If somebody is ill, there is an urgent need of initiating a healing process which can change his mind to a higher complexity.
- 4) As these processes are principally "chaotic" and not continuous, there are intermediate stages where the process can go down to a "bad end" or can go up to a higher complexity.
- 5) The chance for healing and/or peak performing states can drastically be augmented, if the organism (body and mind) often is in the "flow" state - e. g. the well known theta states.
- 6) In the healing procedure the neuronal networks are temporarily in a "plastic state" allowing a process of superlearning. Myriads of thoughts, feelings and sensual perceptions pass the mind and must be filtered and ordered. By feedback loops with the sensual input from the outer world new complex brain structures are formed which from now govern the personality. These new structures are felt to be energetic and can be changed at will.
- 7) When the traumata and brain blockades are removed, new positive energies can freely float through the brain and the body. The chance to become ill is drastically reduced.
- Virtual environments (VE) have been used to successfully treat mental health disorders for the past five years. These include such disorders as fear of flying, fear of heights, fear of spiders, and eating disorders.
- Other studies are currently underway to treat attention-deficit disorder, autism, social phobia, and many neuropsychological disorders with virtual reality (VR).
- Biofeedback and neurotherapy have been shown to also help successfully treat many of these same disorders. It is therefore interesting to note that to date, no studies have been published which include real-time physiological monitoring as part of VE treatment. The potential benefits of using physiological monitoring as part of VE will be discussed and an overview of the field of mental health and VR will be presented.
Reading tasks and Lambda EEG activity. Jay Gunkelman
- 422 Jackson Street, Crockett, CA 94525 510-787-6849 email@example.com
- Many clinicians are using the qEEG for evaluating brain function during intakes. Evaluating the brain under task, such as mental math or reading, adds significantly to the evaluation. Understanding what is being mapped requires a strong background in EEG as well as experienced technical skill during epoch selection.
- There are normal varients in EEG which are commonly seen in testing. The understanding of mapping requires knowledge of these findings and their appearance in the mapping.
- Lambda is one such normal varient, seen as theta in mapping. The waveform morphology, location and mapping of Lambda will be reviewed. The impact on interpretation will be discussed.
Hjorth Referencing in qEEG Jay Gunkelman
- Every montage referencing technique has its unique advantages and weaknesses. Modern qEEG machines alow the user to remontage the data after it has been recorded. The advances in computer hardware computing power gives the user access to powerful resolution enhancing montages using Laplacian mathmatics.
- These techniques are variously called: Hjorth, Laplacian, local average, source derivative and virtual references, depending on the schooling of the presenter. The technique will be discribed, as well as its strengths and weaknesses. Its importance in resolving mapping issues will be demonstrated with the qEEG mapping of a professional boxer.
Workshop: Introduction to qEEG Jay Gunkelman
The workshop will cover in detail the definitions and meaning of a full range qEEG maps. Amplitude, power, relative power, Z-scores, coherence, symmetry and phase. Data base issues will be discussed.
The fundamentals of EEG will be covered with mapping used to illustrate various diagnostic examples, such as ADD, depression and epilepsy.
WS: Neuropysiology and qEEG. Generators and patterns of activity; Implications for Neurofeedback. Jay Gunkelman
A comprehensive model of the brain will be developed, with graphic overheads. Rhythm generators, projection pathways, cortical functions, subcortical/cortical regulators such as the brain stem, thalamus, caudate and limbic system will all be included.
This presentation will lead to the presentation of detailed qEEG analysis from data illustrating head trauma, ADD/ADHD, affective disorders, memory deficits. Evoked potential data will also be displayed from attentionally disordered and affective patients. The implication for customized patient protocols is discussed.
The Theta State and Hypnosis Corydon Hammond
University of Utah School of Medicine Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (801)581-2256 fax(801)585-5757
A research summary of the theta literature twenty years ago suggested that there were two tupes of theta; a drowsy theta, and a theta associated with highly focused attention and involved in complex problem solving, such as doing mental arithmetic. More recent research will be noted that has found a mid-frontal theta (just anterior to FZ and a few millimeters to the left of midline), centering on 6.5 Hz, that is associated with focused attention, is more commonly associated with extroversion, low anxiety, and low neuroticism.
Most people in neurofeedback are unfamiliar with the research literature on hypnosis and brainwave patterns. In fact, many neurofeedback practitioners have been exposed to myths and misunderstand hypnosis, falsely perceiving it as not promoting self-regulation. Hypnosis refers to a state of focused attention. Research finds that when initially entering hypnosis, there is a great deal of 40 Hz activity, followed by a shift to theta brainwaves, particularly in the frontal regions, in the range of 5.5 to 6.5 Hz--the middle point of which is also 6.5 Hz! High hypnotizable persons exhibit more theta (5.5-6.5 Hz) brainwaves than low hypnotizables, both in a waking state, sitting with their eyes closed, and while in both alpha-theta training and in hypnosis, may be particularly focused in this range at about 7 Hz. Givien unique capacities associated with this range of theta activity, the routine use of theta inhibit programs should be questioned. High hypnotizables are found to manifest cognitive flexibility and very special capacities, including higher creativity and abilities to powerfully influence body processes (e.g., in asthma, GI disorders, hemophilia, would healing), including the capacity to produce profound analgesic relief equivalent to or greater than that produced by morphine. The relevance of this literature to clinical practice and for increasing a person’s self-hypnotic capacity will be discussed briefly, and elaborated more fully in alater workshop.
2 hr WS Integrating Hypnosis, Neurofeedback and Light/ Sound Stimulation Corydon Hammond
A research summary of the theta literature twenty years ago suggested that there were two types of the theta; a drowsy theta, and a theta associated with highly focused attention and involved in complex problem solving, such as doing mental arithmetic. More recent research will be noted that has found a mid-frontal theta centering on 6.5 Hz, that is associated with focused attention, and is more commonly associated with extroversion, low anxiety, and low neuroticism. Most people in neurofeedback are unfamiliar with the research literature on hypnosis and brainwave patterns. In fact, many neurofeedback practitioners have been exposed to myths and misunderstand hypnosis, falsely perceiving it as not promoting self-regulation. Hynosis refers to a state of focused attention. Research finds that when initially entering hypnosis, there is a great deal of 40 Hz activity, followed by a shift to theta brainwaves, particularly in the frontal regions, in the range of 5.5 to 6.5 Hz--the middle point of which is also 6.5 Hz! High hypnotizable persons exhibit more theta (5.5-6.5 Hz) than low hypnotizables, both in a waking state, with their eyes closed, and while in hypnosis. Some literature also suggests that mental imagery, such as we use in both alpha-theta training and in hypnosis, may be particularly focused in this range at about 7 Hz. Certain clinical poulations also posses higher hypnotizability, including in patients with 1) bulimia or purging anorexia, 2) more severe hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnancy, 3) posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 4) insomnia, 5) nightmares, 6) temporomandibular joint and other chronic pain syndromes, 7) more intense uticaria symptoms, 8) more severe migraines, 9) conversion disorders, 10) dissociative disorders, and 11) phobias. Such data has relevance for understanding such disorders and for neurofeedback. High hypnotizables also manifest cognitive flexibility and very special capacities, including higher creativity and abilities to powerfully influence body processes, including the capacity to produce profound analgesic relief equivalent to or greater than that produced by morphine.
Unfortunately, the fields of neurofeedback and clinical hypnosis have very little intercommuication, and yet they are relevant to each other and can be synergistic. Barabasz, for example, utilizes a combination of neurofeedback and hypnosis in treating ADD. Following a brief discussion of this literature, this workshop will discuss and demonstrate the simultaneous use of hypnosis with binaural beat stimulation, and with photic and auditory stimulation, in the theta brainwave range. Issues of informed consent for liability protection will also be discussed, along with uses of deep, meditative trance and prolonged hynosis. It is believed that peak performance training might very beneficially utilize 6.5 Hz. as one of the training parameters (e.g, along with 13 Hz). I will overview research that we are beginning on increasing hypnotizability through utilizing neurofeedback along with light/sound stimulation, as well as clinical experience in increasing hypnotic responsivity. There will also be discussion of the beneficial use of positive suggestions during alpha-theta training. It is believed that persons utilizing clinical hypnosis can benefit from adding neurofeedback skills to their repertoire, and that clinicians utilizing neurofeedback (particularly with alpha-theta training) can benefit from learning more about utilizing hypnotic phenomena and enhancing their skillfulness in providing therapeutic suggestions and promoting imagery.
The Ultimate Peak Performers: Alpha Feedback Training for US Army Green Berets Dr. James V. Hardt
- Biocybernaut Institute 1052 Rhode Island Street San Francisco, CA 94107 415- 824-5581 415-824-5582 Training@Biocybernaut.com
- Superstar athletes are often considered to exemplify peak performance. However, many athletes have an off-season where training goals become lower priority. US Army Special Forces have no off-season, and their training goals are always first priority. Two 12-man teams of US Army Green Berets received extensive training in EEG alpha feedback. Prior to their alpha EEG training, all 24 Green Berets had 4 channel EEG recordings of their EEG baselines under three conditions: Eyes Open and Eyes Closed [4 minutes each], and Eyes Closed with White Noise [6 minutes]. These baselines recorded simultaneous integrated amplitude EEG activity from 4 different cortical sites [O1 , O2 , C3 , C4]. Each soldier had a private interview following these recordings. Then all 24 soldiers went on a month-long meditation retreat [retreat is a bad word in the Army, so it was called a "meditation encampment"]. Following the month of meditation, the soldiers received the Biocybernaut Institute 7-day intensive alpha training. All trainings involved simultaneous integrated amplitude feedback [auditory plus digital scores] on at least two different cortical sites [O1 , O2], and were conducted at a high security Army base using a group EEG feedback system from Biocybernaut Institute, which had been configured to train 6 soldiers at the same time. The soldiers took batteries of personality tests before and after their alpha training. These tests included: MMPI, Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, and the Personality Orientation Inventory [POI], which operationalizes Maslow's concept of the self-actualizing personality. Also included in this pre-/ post-testing were the trait forms of the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List [MAACL], the Clyde Mood Scale [CMS], and the Profile of Mood States [POMS].
- Many of the action-oriented soldiers had a bad experience of the meditation encampment, which they experienced as very stressful. EEG baselines taken just after the encampment showed large reductions of EEG alpha activity. In contrast, their subsequent 7-day intensive alpha training was a very positive experience with both 12-man teams showing large increases in alpha activity. The Biocybernaut Institute EEG feedback equipment was available on the army base for 2 ½ months. After their initial week of intensive alpha training, the soldiers had continued access to the equipment for "tune ups". On voluntary days, when they could choose any activity they wished [swimming, playing ball, sleeping, PX], fully two thirds chose to do additional alpha feedback training, finding that it provided significant value to them personally and professionally.
- Comparing pre- and post-alpha training results, both 12-man teams showed significant reductions of their POMS scores of Depression/ ejection,Fatigue, Confusion/Bewilderment, Tension/ Anxiety, and Anger/Hostility. There were also significant reductions in their CMS scores of Sleepy, Unhappy, and Dizzy. The analyses of the MMPI and POI showed beneficial changes in personality dimensions that were linked to changes in the EEG alpha activity of the soldiers. These mission- relevant changes in personality were produced by learned increases in EEG alpha activity. Details on these sometimes complex changes will be presented as overheads during the presentation.
Healing ADD with NLP Thom Hartmann
PO Box 70 Northfield, VT 05663 Fax: 770-993-4210 firstname.lastname@example.org URL: www.mythical.net
NLP (NeuroLinguistic Programming) is a technology of transformation. You will learn how to "read" another person, how to change your experience of time so scheduling and procrastination problems dissolve away, and how to communicate persuasively. You'll discover new ways to understand others, and gain new insights into how people change. Most important, you'll carry out of the room with you new techniques to help people with ADD change their lives in a positive way.
Bio: Thom Hartmann is a the former Executive Director of a residential treatment facility for disturbed children, a psychotherapist in private practice in Vermont, and the award-winning and best-selling author of six books on Attention Deficit Disorder. His book Healing ADD will be out in March from Underwood Books.
NLP Techniques for the Practitioner; Thom Hartmannn
Using Technology to Access "THE ZONE" in Sports & Health- Similarities of "THE ZONE" & Spontaneous Remission
THOMAS HAWES M Ed., Ed.S. 6738 Windmill Lane Memphis, TN 38120 901-755-4165 F 901-458-1120 email# email@example.com
Tom will speak about the process of integrating biofeedback, audio, video and sound and light technology to initiate stillpoints, trigger releases, embellish imagery and create openings for the purposes of accelerated learning and enhanced performance in sports and health. Tom will show EMG, GSR and Thermograph profiles before, during, and after a sound and light session, of athletes in a slump, a golfer prior to shooting the low round in the U.S. Open, a student experiencing a health crisis, a student overcoming a health crisis, and a student victimized by physical abuse. Tom will discuss and demonstrate how he programs sound and light machines and synchronizes music and visuals to engage the mind for 20 minutes; bring the student to theta with awareness, catapult the student into deep personal insight and bring them to a state of calm alertness.
Tom will reveal his observations and the self-reports of those athletes and students with a health crisis who initiated a quantum shift in their performance levels and further elucidate the subsequent personal dynamics they were confronted with.
The positive and negative ramifications of catapulting an athlete into "THE ZONE" and jump-starting one's immune system will be discussed along with the mind, body, spirit foundation necessary to withstand significant personal change.
Tom will conclude with a discussion of those characteristics and fundamental elements of accessing "THE ZONE" in sports and initiating a spontaneous remission during a health crisis.
2 - HOUR WS How To Use Technology To Accecss "The Zone" in Sports & Health. Tom Hawes
- I. What Is "THE ZONE"?
- A. Descriptions of "THE ZONE" by athletes.
- B. Descriptions of "THE ZONE" by those
- experiencing a health crisis.
- C. Common characteristic of uncommon
- II. Using Audio, Video, Sound and Light To Access "
- THE ZONE" Independently.
- A. Programming the Sound and Light Machine for
- the purpose of:
- 1. Keeping the mind engaged for 20 mins.
- 2. Catapulting the student into deeper states
- with awareness.
- B. Using video to create a right-brain syntax -
- the story behind the story.
- 1. How computer graphics mimic the way
- the brain thinks.
- a. thoughts that run in parallel
- b. thoughts that deflect off each other
- c. thoughts that coalesce
- 2. Establishing metaphor, symbology, and a
- right-brain alphabet.
- 3. Creating and ebellishing personal vision.
- C. Using audio to guide the movement, rhythm and
- create transitions.
- III. Synchronizing The Audio, Video, Sound And Light
- To Produce A "ZONE EXPERIENCE" - Discussion And Demonstration.
- A. Initiating stillpoints.
- B. Triggering releases.
- C. Embellishing imagery.
- D. Creating openings/insights.
- IV. The role of Biofeedback
- A. Tangible reflections of an invisible influence.
- B. Refining the "Letting Go" response.
- C. Monitioring progress.
- V. An Overview Of This Type of Training.
- A. Video interviews and self-reports of athletes and
- those experiencing a health crisis who
- initiated a sinificant personal shift.
- B. EMG, GSR, and Thermograph profile.
- 1. Students accessing "THE ZONE"
- 2. Students not accessing "THE ZONE"
- C. Accumulating "ZONE MINUTES" - the
- momentum to initiate significant personal
- VI. Do We Push The River Or Adjust The Current?
The Work of D.A. Quirk, Psychologist: Rapid Effective Treatment of Incarcerated Violent Felons Using EEG Biofeedback; George Von Hilsheimer
175 Lookout Place Maitland FL 32751 407-644-6464 F407-660-2082 email firstname.lastname@example.org www.eegspectrum.com/html/affil.htm
Discusses the development of Quirk's technique of the treatment of bizarrely violent young males and reviews application of his method to contemporary modes of neurotherapy.
2 hr WS The Work of D.A. Quirk: Treatment of Schizophrenia, BiPolar Disorder and Violence by combining GSR Desensitization and EEG Biofeedback. A 30 Year Perspective On Biofeedback: Quick, Dirty, Useful Techniques to Enhance Technological Sophistication.;
Wolpe was unable to treat schizophrenics using RIT. However, Quirk, the first psychologist in North America to be given full charge of a psychiatric ward enjoyed a remarkable success using GSR to monitor physiological responses to hierarchically arranged lantern slides in Rorschach categories. Quirk and his colleague credited desensitization to Mary Cover Jones.
The combination of Mary Cover Jones' method with Sterman's EEG biofeedback reliably allows restoration of long term schizophrenic and bipolar patients to effective independence and avoidance of hospital (and drugs). Quirk also reduced recidivism in male felons from 98% to 40% using similar tactics. His application of these well established methods in private practice made a range of bizarre behaviors accessible to neurotherapy.
DIMENSIONALITY OF THE MIND & BODY: Looking for the Common Denominator of Optimal Functioning
Michael Hutchison 2357 Botulph Rd. Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-983-7096 F 505-988-1158
Humans have always had a driving concern with Optimal Functioning (OF). It can be argued that the most vital force in human life is our innate drive toward OF--peak experiences, peak performance, flow, being in the zone. Ancient inner technologies emerged out of thousands of years of ongoing research into OF.
Today, a variety of technologies are being used to nurture these exceptional states, including NF, light-sound systems (LS), microcurrent electrical stimulation, psychoacoustic sound patterns, vibroacoustic systems, HR variability feedback, etc.
Optimal functioning may coincide with a wide variety of EEG patterns, types of attention, levels of arousal, states of consciousness. Is there a source or common denominator of all optimal functioning? Can this root or fundamental source be regulated intentionally? One key quality of nonlinear mind-body systems is the amount of dimensionality. Aspects of dimensionalilty include flexibility, fluidity, and sensitivity. High dimensional states have high degrees of these qualities, and are characteristic of optimal functioning. Low dimensional states, on the other hand, are predictable, rigid, inflexible. In humans, low dimensionality is directly linked with sickness, injury or age.
Optimal dimensionality is a key to a vast network of interlocked and interdependent systems that make up the whole mind and body, including the cardiovascular, immune, nervous and endocrine systems, and emergent properties of these systems such as consciousness and the mind. Dimensionality, and learning to self-regulate or alter it, may be a key to optimal functioning.
There is evidence that such tools as NF, light-sound, microcurrent stimulation and so on, can increase or alter dimensionality of mind-body systems on many levels. CONTROL OF DIMENSIONALITY IS A LEARNABLE SKILL.
Some of the strategies and techniques that can be used to increase the complexity of human biological and psychological attractors, I.e. dimensionality, include increasing a the range of motion, flexibility and "depth" of one or a number of interlocked systems. Approaches include EEG synchrony/ desynchrony, hemispheric symmetry/ asymmetry, and establishing a dynamic "sweet spot" or points of stability; moving to the dynamic boundary between order and chaos.
Optimizing dimensionality not only has benefits for mind-body fitness and Optimal Functioning, but also may mean increasing the clarity of our primordial sense of awareness or "beingness." That is, the pure presence or essence of beingness without any and prior to any qualities or distinctions--the source and "ground of being" of all states and experiences. The greater or lesser degree of this clarity of awareness or pure presence may in fact be the core of dimensionality.
The relationship between dimensionality and primary awareness is intriguing. The technologies mentioned above may be widely effective in assisting humans to learn not only to regulate their dimensionality but to clarify primary awareness. If so, they may in fact be tools for learning to drop off the limitations of individual personality and conceptual thought and move directly into fundamental awareness or presence. If so they would represent a significant advance over traditional inner technologies.
4 hr WS REGULATING DIMENSIONALITY: A LEARNABLE SKILL Michael Hutchison
Complex non-linear systems thrive and evolve most rapidly in the dynamic boundary zone between the rigid predictability of order and the total randomness of chaos. Here very minimal stimuli can cause rapid whole-system shifts, which we experience as peak experiences and optimal functioning. It is here that the human brain and body-mind systems have the greatest capacity for healing, self-organization, creative exploration, transcendence, insight and evolution.
A signature characteristic of highly functional complex systems is a high level of dimensionality --a measure of flexibility, complexity,
unpredictability, richness, "depth," and range of movement. Control of dimensionality is a learnable skill. There's now evidence that such tools as NF, light-sound, microcurrent stimulation, psychoacoustic programs and so on, can increase or alter dimensionality of mind-body systems on many levels, and can train users to self-regulate dimensionality.
Such dimensionality effects may be a key to the personal and clinical benefits of these tools and techniques in such areas as: alpha-theta, SMR, beta, flexibility and brain symmetry-asymmetry training; treatment of drug and alcohol addiction, anxiety, depression, PTSD, ADD, PMS, brain damage, and age-related cognitive impairment; boosting immune function; mastering peak performance and flow states; and enhancement of memory, learning, and creativity.
In this workshop, we will experience firsthand the effects of several types of these technologies. We will explore the uses of photic entrainment/disentrainment or light-sound systems in several sessions, including alpha-theta, beta, and flexibility training; and will discuss specific details concerning appropriate programs, frequencies.
We will experience a number of psychoacoustic programs and discuss how you can use binaural beats tracks and other psychoacoustic techniques to create
effective audio programs. We will also demonstrate and discuss the uses of microcurrent electrical stimulation, including recent findings that specific devices, and specific sites of electrode placement, can produce rapid neurochemical changes, and dramatic increases in EEG dimensionality. We will explore the benefits of and techniques for linking and potentiating these systems with neurofeedback.
Among the tools and techniques we will explore are:
BRAINWAVE ENTRAINMENT AND DISENTRAINMENT TECHNIQUES
Discussion and demonstration of devices for producing rapid changes in brainwave frequencies and patterns through entrainment and disentrainment.
We will also explore evidence that these systems can increase brainwave dimensionality, and discuss using these tools to regulate dimensionality.
LIGHT/SOUND SYSTEMS. Demonstration of how these devices work. Summary of research, and discussion of clinical successes in treating ADD, ADHD, anxiety, depression, insomnia, brain damage, stroke, PMS etc.
PSYCHOACOUSTIC STIMULATION. Demonstration of binaural beats and other psychoacoustic sound-generation techniques, to explore how sounds can alter brainwaves and induce optimal performance states. Discussion of how participants can create effective psychoacoustic programs for clients.
MICROCURRENT STIMULATION. Demonstration of state-of-the-art nonlinear microcurrent stimulators. Summary of research. Discussion of evidence that
such stimulation is effective in boosting brainwave dimensionality, cognitive functioning, learning, and memory, as well as treating drug and alcohol addiction, head injuries, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and more.
NEUROFEEDBACK IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN SYNDROMES BRIEF CASE SKETCHES - II-
Author : Victoria L. Ibric, M.D., Ph.D., Therapy and Prevention Center, Pasadena, CA
UCLA Pain Medicine Center 200 Medical Plaza, suite 660 Los Angeles, CA 90095 310-794-1841 F 818-577-2202
(See last year's abstract (available free on FUTUREHEALTH Website)
Follow up of the cases presented last year. In addition, a presentation of another interesting case of spasticity post meningitis , post neck surgery, and high blood pressure. Some remarks on reflex sympathetic dystrophy. (More extensively presented at the workshop)
WORKSHOP Neurofeedback and Chronic Pain by Victoria L. Ibric, MD, Ph.D.
- The attendees will learn how to assess and understand how to treat patients with chronic pain by the means of biofeedback/ neurofeedback.
- 1. Chronic Pain: Definition;
- The anatomy and physiology the pain
- Different Localizations/ Corticalization of the pain Causality
- Differential Diagnosis
- - Different Dx: eg MFPS, RSD,
- thoracic outlet syndrome, spasticities, etc.
- Pre BF therapies
- Patient compliance with Medical Tx
- Co- Morbidities (very important)
- 2. Acute pain vs Chronic Pain and acutization
- Differential Diagnosis;
- 3. Biofeedback and PPP helping to understand the patient make up, as well as the degree of the physical impairment (specific EMG testings may be indicative, eg)
- 4. Neurofeedback training
- When to chose NF vs EMG or TMP BF training, when to combine them?
- NF training strategies Examples: MFPS, RSD, Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, headaches, etc.
- Electrodes positioning, BW frequencies, when to change or not the modality of training during a session, or during the course of training;
- how to guide the patient and to monitor the evolution (what should you tell the patient to make him/her more compliant?)
- 5. Home work assignments:
- Patient and therapist may learn how to monitor the pain and the emotions of the patient .and the interrelations between pain and emotions.
- The generalization response may also be helped by the use of associated techniques, such as, RR, Mini relaxations, QR, TMP training, BE, etc
- 6. The Length of the training: depends: on the : patient make up and compliance, pre Tx and on going Tx, correct approach from the BF training standpoint, number of sessions per week, etc.
- 7. Follow ups! Success of the BF therapy is based on:
- A: Patient dependence on other therapies-vs
- B: Patient willingness to become self reliant
What to Do When NF Doesn’t Work: "EFT" - A New Tool to Boost Response to Neurofeedback Julian Isaacs
EFT is a useful technique to resolve unconscious blocks and resistances to NF.
4 hr.workshop Learn EFT - "Emotional Freedom Techniques": A Versatile Therapeutic Procedure For Emotional Self-Regulation, Psychotherapy and Dissolving Resistance to Neurofeedback.. Julian Isaacs
Marin Biofeedback Associates 1050 Northgate Drive, Ste 280 San Rafael, CA 94903 415-472-1875 F 415-472-2782 Ji@crl.com
Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) developed by Cary Craig from Dr. Rodger Callahan's "Thought Field Therapy" (TFT) is a safe, fast-acting, easy-to-learn emotional regulation technique which has a spectacular fifteen year history of success in treating phobias, PSTD, anxiety, depression and many other psychological disorders. EFT is safe enough for use by laypeople, children and neurofeedback (NF) practitioners who do not have psychological qualifications. It has been found by the presenter to be effective in resolving blocks and resistances to neurofeedback and enhances response to NF. EFT even has a procedure claimed to manage "neurological disorganization".
The original form of this technique (TFT) is now taught in workshops costing up to $10,000. In this (less expensive!) workshop you will learn the practical fundamentals of EFT sufficiently to be able to apply it successfully to your practice. You will also have the opportunity to experience the effects of EFT first-hand in resolving negatively toned emotional responses. You will be fully oriented towards the applications, techniques, limitations and history/theories of EFT.
EFT embodies a radical approach to emotional regulation because it is founded on an acupressure paradigm rather than a psychotherapeutic model. This new paradigm for behavioral modification is so radical that it usually creates resistance in individuals first encountering the technique or its claims/results. The core hypothesis is that acupuncture meridians run through brain structures so that brain function can be modified directly through tapping with the fingers on meridian end-points located on the surface of the body. This hypothesis is consistent with data suggesting that acupuncture can be effective in remediating ADD and Tourette Syndrome behaviors. This author hypothesises that EFT can by this means modify the relationship between the amygdala and hippocampus for specific memories,
perceptions or associations, thus "unhooking" affective charge from them. Perhaps EFT also modulates the relationship between the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. If these hypotheses are valid, EFT qualifies as a novel psycho-biological intervention and is ripe for controlled investigation. The existing research literature will be reviewed in the workshop.
One of the most useful features of EFT is that it provides a powerful conceptual structure and practical methods for dealing with unconscious conflicts which block response to therapeutic interventions. An individual having such a conflict is said, in the language of EFT, to be "psychologically reversed" about the conflictual topic. Some individuals, who usually are those for whom "nothing works", are said to be "chronically" or "massively" reversed about many issues. Most NF practitioners have encountered this type of client who is usually referred by other practitioners who have been unable to help them. EFT includes a detailed analysis of, and a variety of techniques to deal with, psychological reversal. These will be reviewed in the workshop. The EFT "de-reversal" procedure has been tried with NF clients who had previously showed no gains, with dramatic success in some cases. You are invited to try this technique within your practice.
Neurofeedback training for chemical dependency in the context of the Minnesota Model; David Kaiser & William Scott
EEG Spectrum 16100 Ventura Blvd, #10 Encino, CA 91436 (818) 788-2083 email@example.com
Twenty-one control subjects and 29 experimental subjects underwent treatment for chemical dependency in an inpatient facility using the Minnesota Model (12-step treatment combined with group and individual therapy). Experimental subjects also underwent 10 to 20 SMR-beta neurofeedback training sessions followed by 30 alpha-theta sessions during the first 45 days of treatment. For both groups the primary drugs of choice at intake were cocaine or methamphetamine, though most were polydrug abusers. Experimental subjects improved significantly on attentional and personality measures by the end of training whereas controls showed no improvement on these measures after the same number of days in the facility.
Experimental subjects improved on the depression, psychopathic deviate, psychasthenia, hysteria, and schizophrenia scales of the MMPI-2, p <.01. Similar personality changes were found for an alcoholic population (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1991). Experimental subjects remained in treatment twice as long as controls, 96.5 vs. 45.7 days, p<.01. Twenty-four percent of the neurofeedback group relapsed temporarily, but only 2 of 21 subjects (10 %) were no longer abstinent one full year after leaving the facility. As only five controls had completed treatment before July 1997, the 1996 patient population at this facility, whose treatment resembled the controls', was used as a comparison group for relapse rate. Of 72 patients contacted six months after treatment, 32 admitted relapse and collateral interviews revealed that an additional 20 were no longer abstinent. Thus the Minnesota model alone produced a 72 % relapse rate. Although further research is needed, the addition of neurofeedback training to conventional therapies appears to be the most promising new development in the field of chemical dependency treatment.
THE "SHERLOCK HOLMES METHOD" OF BIOFEEDBACK: SLEUTHING BEYOND THE OBVIOUS Lynda Kirk, MAHS, BCIA-C, QEEGT
- Austin Biofeedback Center 3624 North Hills Drive, Suite B-205 Austin, Texas 78731
- VOICE: (512) 794-WELL (794-9355) FAX: (512) 794-0076 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
- A successful outcome in biofeedback training, including EEG neurotherapy, often depends on the ability of the therapist to put on his or her Sherlock Holmes hat to find the unexpected pieces that complete the treatment puzzle. Using all of our resources, senses, and problem solving skills are key to devising specific and effective training protocols. This strategy of creative "sleuthing" often yields solutions to the problem in otherwise puzzling cases.
- Six interesting clinical cases will be examined:
- 1) A CURIOUS CASE OF BELL'S PALSY: SOLUTION RINGS TRUE FOR A "CLOSET" HEADBANGER
- 2) THE "MIDNIGHT MONSTER MYSTERY": DRY SHEETS FOR DARLA
- 3) A CASE OF CHAOS IN THE CLASSROOM: POTTY TRAINING FOR TEACHER
- 4) THE CASE OF THE CONSCIENTIOUS COP: ANOTHER CULPRIT FINGERED
- 5) THE SECRET LIFE OF MS. THURSDY: A CURIOUS CASE OF "HAND AND MOUTH DISEASE"
- 6) "THE GUY IS FALLING, THE GUY IS FALLING" (HE'S DOWN AND HE CAN'T GET IT UP)
- 1) A CURIOUS CASE OF BELL'S PALSY: SOLUTION RINGS TRUE FOR A "CLOSET" HEADBANGER
- A 25 year old female newswriter was referred by her neurologist for right hemifacial Bell's Palsy, "etiology unknown". The patient's initial history revealed no apparent neurological, myofascial, or soft-tissue trauma nor any excessive emotional or stress component to her symptom. The patient was successfully treated over a 6-week period with multimodal biofeedback. Surface EMG specific to the right orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus, frontalis, SCM, and masticatory muscles was used as well as EEG neurotherapy (SMR training at CZ). After symptoms abated, she suddenly exacerbated. Sleuthing revealed a secret life that she did not want her employer to know about. A few training modifications closed the case but
- not the closet.
- 2) THE "MIDNIGHT MONSTER MYSTERY": DRY SHEETS FOR DARLA
- A very bright eight year old child with ADHD was referred by her urologist for diurnal and nocturnal enuresis. She was successfully treated with EMG specific to dysfunctional voiding and incontinence. EEG
- neurotherapy was also used to treat her ADHD as well as for striate and smooth muscle relaxation. She became asymptomatic for several weeks, and then regressed to nocturnal enuresis. Sleuthing revealed that there was a "monstrously" logical reason for her night-time bedwetting which was then creatively solved by asking the child some "clearly obvious" key questions, and following up with desensitization.
- 3) A CASE OF CHAOS IN THE CLASSROOM: POTTY TRAINING FOR TEACHER
- A high school teacher was referred by her urologist for treatment of chronic urinary tract infections and large residual urines. With multimodal feedback (EMG and EEG neurotherapy) she was quickly able to learn skills which specifically addressed her dysfunctional voiding. Curiously, her symptoms got better every weekend, then worsened during the week. She loved to teach and denied that stress was a factor. Sleuthing
- revealed the slick solution to her school day symptoms, which were solved with systematic desensitization and multimodal feedback.
- 4) THE CASE OF THE CONSCIENTIOUS COP: ANOTHER CULPRIT FINGERED
- A police officer was referred by his physician for carpal tunnel syndrome and irritable bowel symptoms. He was treated with multimodal feedback (EEG, EMG, ST, EDR) for several weeks. His symptoms were slow to improve and I was unable to determine the reason for his slow progress by questioning him in the usual way. It was not until I rode with him in his patrol car that the sleuthing method "fingered the culprit" and his symptoms improved.
- 5) THE SECRET LIFE OF MS. THURSDY: A CURIOUS CASE OF "HAND AND MOUTH DISEASE"
- A CAD computer artist was referred by her rheumatologist for treatment of fibromyalgia and carpal tunnel. Her carpal tunnel and fibromyalgia remediated with a combination of EEG and dynamic EMG retraining of the forearm flexors, extensors, and SCM's while she worked at her computer. However, her jaw continued to pop and she continued to complain of MPD symptoms in her jaws and neck. Sleuthing "whistled" up the solution after she revealed that she was a rabid basketball fan and UIL referee. EEG and EMG training were then tailored to her lifestyle with a winning outcome.
- 6) "THE GUY IS FALLING, THE GUY IS FALLING" (HE'S DOWN AND HE CAN'T GET IT UP)
- A ceiling tile installer was referred by his urologist for treatment of lumbar pain and levator ani syndrome. The patient added that he had been having problems with impotence and that the impotence bothered him more than his other symptoms. His urologist had told him that his impotence was "probably psychological" since the patient awakened with morning erections. He was treated with multimodal feedback with only moderate results (dynamic EMG feedback and EEG neurotherapy). Sleuthing revealed that Spring and Fall are more than states of mind.The patient then improved after desensitization was added to his eclectic treatment plan.
Neuroscience in the Eighteenth Century: A note on the Historical Contribution of Emanuel Swedenborg
- Stephen Larsen, Ph.D. Ctrr for Symbolic Studies, Inc. Stone Mountain Farm 475 River Road Ext. New Paltx, NY 12561
- 914-658-8540 F 914-658-3369
- Descartes had described the brain as the seat of the soul, but believed it dwelt near the pineal gkand as a kind of homunculus, a ghost in a machine.
- He accepted the view of the Seventeenth Century that said the cerebral cortex was "gland" that nourished the "real" brain (the white matter). Swedenborg, beginning with (forbidden) anatomical studies in France, and comparing reports of behavioral and psychological distortions experienced by those with brain damage as modern neuroscientists do, described the locations of certain brain functions, the role of the cerebrospinal fluid, asserted the cerebal cortex (gray matter) was the "thinking brain," inferred the presence of neurons before microscopes powerful enough to discover them had been invented.
- In the second part of his life Swedenborg became a visionary, and was rumored to have paranormal powers, a claim verified by Immanuel Kant. He claimed a literal kind of "in-sight" into the brain, discovering by direct means (he said), that the "cerebellula" (neurons) functioned by means of "tremulations" (an early account of brain waves), and that the two cortical hemispheres processed information differently. The right, he thought, was intuitive and emotional, while the left was more "rational". His holistic picture of how consciousness emerges as the synthesis of these two faculties is sophisticated even today.
Theta Panel: Theta & the Unconscious; Into the Dragon's Lair: Delta, Theta & The Mythic Unconscious Stephen Larsen
In a tripartite model of consciouness, the Mandukya Upanishad shows us that sleep and dreaming exist on a continuum with walking consciousness. The well-trained yogi can negotiate all of the transformations of consciousness in a state called the turiya. The work of Carl Jung and Stanislav Grof are brought into relationship with a consciousness and brain-wave morphology to esplore Jung's idea of "the self-liberating power of the introverted mind."
Biofeedback can be seen as an example of a larger instance of Silberer's "Autosymbolic" aspect of the unconscious, and discussion of (exercises in) guided imagery and being presented. The presention concludes with a neurofeedback evaluation of Joseph Campbell's assertion: "Myth is the secret opening through which the inexhaustible energies of the cosmos pour into human cultural manifestation..."
Applications of Neurofeedback for Domestic Violence: Barbara A. Linde, Ph.D
Mind Media Institute 3166 East Palmdale Boulevard, Suite 214 Palmdale, CA 93550 (805)947-2537 fax: (805)947-4127 e-mail: email@example.com
Over the past few years, this office has seen a rise in domestic violence and anger. Many of the local cases of domestic violence have been court referred to the local psychotherapists who continue to use individual and group therapy. The recidivism rate is excessively high and the anger is not abated. This domestic violence defect may also be part of a genetic and behavioral link.
A correlation was made between Adult ADHD and domestic violence. Another correlation between right-side head injuries and the domestic violence was made. Twenty men, between the ages of 18 and 77 and who were referred by local psychotherapists and courts, were trained using EEG Spectrum equipment. Training strategies and outcome will be discussed.
How to Select ADD Candidates for NF: Michael Linden
30270 Rancho Viejo Rd., Ste C, San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675 714-248-7411 F 714-248-7511 DRMIKE49@aol.com
This talk will discuss the important criteria that Dr. Linden has developed over the past 9 years to select the ADD clients who will be the most and least successful in Neurofeedback training.
The Complete ADD Testing & Treatment Workshop Mike Linden
This workshop will review the symptoms and etiology of ADD. I will discuss in detail using testing (behavior rating scales, CPT tests & Q-EEG evaluations) to accurately diagnos ADD and develop idividualized treatment plans.
Selection of ADD candidates for Neurofeedback training and monitoring the NF process to ensure the most success will be presented.
AN EVALUATION OF THE SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AVS(SOUND AND LIGHT)ON QEEG: SURPRISING FINDINGS Joel F. Lubar Ph.D.
- Dept of Psychology, U. of TN , Austin-PEAY Building 310, Knoxville TN 37996-0900
- 423-974-3360 F 423-974-3330 firstname.lastname@example.org
- In the first study the effects of auditory and visual stimulation(AVS) at the dominant alpha frequency and twice dominant alpha frequency were investigated for the QEEG. And eyes-closed baseline EEG determined each subjects dominant alpha frequency. Subjects were stimulated at the dominant alpha frequency and at twice dominant alpha frequency for 20 minutes on two occasions, two weeks apart. Stimulation was counterbalanced for the two presentations. A 30-minute post-session eyes-closed EEG was recorded after each session. Power data were analyzed for 19 locations in six bandpass is using repeated-measures analysis of variance and appropriate post-hoc T-tests. Alpha stimulation significantly increased power over baseline levels in the Delta 1,Delta2, beta 1, and Beta 2 bandpasses. Significant post-stimulation effects remained 1/2 hour later in the beta 1 bandpass. Twice alpha frequency stimulation significantly increased theta, beta 1, and beta 2 power over baseline levels, with significant effects remaining 1/2 hour later in the beta-1 bandpass. The relative merits of alpha and beta AVS for possibly enhancing neurofeedback will be discussed.
- In the second study subjects involved training for 20 sessions. Four groups of subjects were included in this study: individuals trained at 6 Hz(theta), subjects trained at their dominant alpha frequency, and subjects trained it twice dominant alpha frequency. A fourth group consisted of controls who wore the AVS goggles but did not receive any stimulation.
- I will present the preliminary results of this study. Specifically I will show QEEG maps representing the difference between post-baseline and pre-baseline measures for eyes open and eyes closed conditions. The post baseline measures were taken two weeks after the completion of the stimulation. The effects are complex and counter intuitive. For example stimulation at twice the dominant frequency (beta) leads to increased power in many frequency bands including delta, theta, and beta. The implications of these findings for integrating AVS with neurofeedback will be discussed as well as consideration of various paradigms and protocols for combining the two techniques. The discussion of this integration will be centered around increasing attentive processes and possibly peak performance for complex cognitive and academic tasks with implications for other types of peak performance applications.
FOUNDATIONS COURSE PRESENTATION: UNDERSTANDING THE EEG, ITS ORIGINS, ITS CHARACTERISTICS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR NEUROFEEDBACK - NEUROTHERAPY. Joel F. Lubar
In this foundations course I will demonstrate a number of EEG pattern characteristics that are important for the basic understanding and for application in the fields of neurofeedback and neurotherapy. EEG is an extremely complex phenomenon. Understanding neocortical dynamics, the origins of EEG and how it is recorded, analyzed and processed is of primary importance in order to utilize EEG neurofeedback techniques and neurotherapy approaches. First, I will familiarize the attendees with the basic EEG patterns such as delta, theta, alpha, beta, SMR, lambda, mu, sleep spindles, and other commonly recorded EEG characteristics. Next I will demonstrate some of the abnormal EEG patterns associated with seizure disorders and other types of neuropathology.
This foundations course will discuss in detail the more important and somewhat more complex concepts such as harmonic analysis of EEG, phase and coherence, and their importance in understanding functional linkages within the cerebral cortex and between the cortex and the thalamus. The importance of coherence and phase will become particularly apparent in a discussion about the difference between referential and bipolar EEG montages. The relationship between phase and coherence measurements and the characteristics associated with closed head injury and possibly attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities will be discussed.
My portion of the course will also include a discussion of the different types of signal processing methodologies that are utilized in the development of neurofeedback instrumentation and the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach. These methodologies include active bandpass filters, fast Fourier analysis, pattern analysis, and combined analog and digital techniques based on several of these approaches used simultaneously.
Workshop: -- 4 hours -- Choosing the Optimal EEG Patterns for the Enhancement of Attention and Peak Academic Performance: Assessment, Treatment Protocols, and Demonstrations. Joel F. Lubar Ph. D
During the past twenty years we have developed protocols for the treatment of attention deficit\Hyperactivity disorder. These protocols involved basically increasing beta activity and decreasing theta activity over central cerebral cortex for the innattentive component of ADD\HD. In individuals that have the hyperactive form of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder the SMR protocol is used initially. This involves training patients first to increase SMR (12 to 15 Hz over sensorimotor cortex) and then the using the beta paradigm to increase cognitive processing. In this workshop I will demonstrate specifically how an assessment is made in order to determine whether an individual has an EEG pattern consistent with the diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and also whether to train referentially or bipolar and and which frequencies to reward and which frequencies to inhibit.
We have published research that showing that it is possible to enhance attentive processes in non-ADD/HD individuals. This often involves working with other portions of the beta band and inhibiting partions of the theta-alpha(thalpha) region. I will demonstrate how to assess where to set the parameters for training in order to enhance reading and listening performance for specific locations associated with Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Next I will demonstrate how this methodology can lead to procedures for enhancing other types of activities often designated as "peak performance" including certain types of athletic activities where visualization is important before a specific movement is performed. These more complex protocols involve being able to identify rather specific EEG patterns and reinforcing these patterns. The way in which this is done will be demonstrated specifically using EEG biofeedback instrumentation.
EXAMINING THE MULTIGENERATIONAL GENETIC DISTRIBUTION OF DOPAMINE RECEPTOR ALLELES IN FAMILIES WITH A HISTORY OF ADD/HD AND ADDICTION: JUDITH O. LUBAR LCSW,BCD
Southeastern Biofeedback & Neurobehavioral Institute P.O. Box 10437 Knoxville, TN 37939
423-584-8857 F423-584-8721 email@example.com
Two families, with more than 50 members were tested for the distribution of the DRD2 receptor gene, DAT (dopamine transporter gene) and DBH (dopamine beta hydroxylase gene). A family member multigenerational genogram was developed first. This genogram evaluated each member over three generations for the existence of various components of the "reward deficiency syndrome"(RDS, Blum) and its estimated severity.
The genograms show remarkably high correspondence between the differential distribution of the three alleles putatively associated with RDS and ADD/HD as well as addictive disorders, pathological violence,carbohydrate bingeing, and smoking. The implication of these findings for developing a neurofeedback and psychotherapy program will be discussed in detail.
WORKSHOP 4 Hrs Patterns of EEG Changes In Patients With ADD/HD and Co-Morbidities Including Anxiety, Depression, Passive Aggressive Behavior, Chemical Dependancy, and Learning Disabilities. JUDITH O.LUBAR LCSW,BCD
Families with addiction and genetics associated with ADD/HD present a special challenge in neurofeedback and psychotherapy because of the cluster of comorbidities which seemed to increase in intensity from one generation to the next. These comorbidities have to be sorted out in the evaluation process and dealt with in both psychotherapy and neurotherapy treatment.
My workshop will demonstrate how to recognize, based upon EEG criteria, when the patient needs psychotherapeutic intervention or intervention for learning disabilities in addition to neurofeedback training in order for the entire treatment program to be successful. Case histories and concomitant EEG feedback changes in reactivity in individuals who were depressed,anxious,passive aggressive and/or experiencing addictions illuminate the description of the appropriate EEG therapeutic changes which make the treatment outcome successful. EEG based termination criteria will also be described.
That Brain is Attached to a Body: Treating the whole person, not just the ADD Linda Mason, M.A.
Brownback Mason & Associates 1702 W.Walnut St. Allentown PA 18104-6741
610-434-1540, fax 610-434-1540 firstname.lastname@example.org
Clinicians working with children and adults with ADD/HD attempt to create the best learning environment through the neurofeedback programs and feedback they utilize; but what about the learning environment the client brings to the session? This presentation will highlight the research on the impact of food, exercise, sleep, nicotine, caffeine and self-affirmations on the person's brain chemistry and discuss how to get clients to improve their lifestyle to enhance their neurotherapy. Case studies will demonstrate that the success rate of treating ADD/HD with neurotherapy improves when the whole person is included in the learning paradigm.
Enhancing Therapeutic Neurotherapy with Optimal Performance Training Linda Mason, M.A.
Optimal performance training utilizing neurofeedback has focused on people who are functioning well. We have incorporated optimal performance training into our treatment of ADD/HD, closed head injury, and dissociative disorders; the result is that clients report a decrease in symptoms sooner and an improvement in life quality that is more than just the absence of symptoms.
A Comprehensive Neurofeedback Program for Optimal Performance Linda Mason, M.A.
This workshop will describe eleven protocols for optimal performance training, the research behind the design of the protocols, and the populations that would benefit from them. Case studies will demonstrate the efficacy of these protocols.
In addition, this workshop will discuss the personal and financial benefits of utilizing these protocols to develop an independent training adjunct to one's business, as well as the steps to doing so.
Prime Performance Liana Matulich (with Bob Whitehouse)
- 2235 South Clermont Street Denver, CO 80222 (303)758-4753 fax#(303)758-4753
- Biofeedback is integrated with Eastern philosophy, and meditation practices into an individualized program for people and organizations. Bilateral autonomic balance from meridian points is followed by attaining the golden proportion (phi ratio) between EEG sites in a developmental Enneagram sequence (F4, 02, F6, F3, 01, F7). Theory, exercises and cases examples are included.
- Statement of Objective.
- 1* Objective: To consider a new model of biofeedback training for integration and growth, acknowledging our highest potentials.
- 2* Objective: To learn ways of integrating Eastern and Western techniques into a biofeedback practice.
- 3* Objective: To understand the balanced proportions in body, mind, feeling energy.
- 4* Objective: To know Eastern metaphors and exercises that open connections between biological demensions.
- 5* Objective: To feel deeper awareness of what is real in us (our Inner Key) and recognize we are in communion with larger reality (the Web of Life).
- Attendee description:
- For professional in any field of biofeedback who want an "expanding concept of what it means to be human" (John Naisbit) and who want to develop a new paradigm of vital transformation as a tool to empower self, clients, community, the world.
- Introductory level.
- State the claim of your course:
- The claim is that this E/W integrated biofeedback model brings quick autonomic balance, and with training EEG for phi ratios between sites in the Enneagram sequence (F4, 02, F6, F3, 01, F7) develops a natural harmonic linking of brain, heart, and immune system. Individuals report a greater sense of connection and purpose.
- Session Content/Summary of presentation. (In Spanish and English)
- 1. Program Goals and Theoretical Base.
- 2. Program Components and Time: Evaluation, Stages of Training, Breaks.
- 3. Use of Instruments and Sites: Thermal, EDR, HR, EEG.
- 4. Training Protocols.
- 5. Exercises Used.
- 6. Guided Experiences (for workshop).
- 1. Understand phi ratio, Enneagram, 10-20 EEG standard sites and meridian points.
- 2. Know stages of training, criterion levels for next training.
- 3. Learn proper hookups techniques.
- 4. Produce autonomic balancing; from raw EEG signals recognize individual needs and integrate immune system response.
- 5. Practice ancient exercises from Sufism, Taoism, and Nagual origin, with Jean Houston depth development level of imagery.
- 6. Experience metaphor as a tool for Vital Transformation.
Feedback Made Easy - Reduction of amplitude of the total band in initial treatment. Dan Maust
Hyperactive Hearts & Minds: A Box Top for the Puzzle of Attention Difficulties
Carla Nelson Professional Resource Group 383 Diablo Rd. Suite 100 Danville CA 94526 voice: (510) 837-8365 fax: please phone first
Many wonder if the wide range of symptoms called "ADD" can rest side-by-side in any one clinical category. But where some ask for splitting apart, Carla Nelson proposes connecting. Returning to Palm Springs to further detail her spectrum model of attention difficulties, she illustrates how a patchwork of AD/HD symptoms aligns once we consider attention and arousal together and at the same times. Based on a matrix of states that wax and wane in response to stimuli, this model depicts the flux between extremes of focus and feeling that give rise to attentional instability.
No symptom list alone describes all the ways these ups and downs combine, but charted as shifting variables over time, a dyanamic spectrum unfolds in three types with nine degrees of intensity. This continuum seeds a trail of pointers to common comorbidities and a graphic way to help explain the puzzle of ADD variability.
Carla Berg Nelson, a journalist who writes on topics in science andhealth and holds a degree in psych from Berkeley, is leader of the Mind- Brain/Body Sciences Forum (GO MIND) on CompuServe and co-leader of its ADD Forum where she has been an advisor to scores of patients and has interviewed most of the leading ADD specialists.
A New Look at the Worlds of Neurofeedback Len Ochs, Ph.D
Center for Neurofunctioning 106 La Casa Via, Suite 110 Walnut Creek, CA 94598
Web: http://www.flexyx.com Voice: (510)906-0422 FAX: (510)906-0419 e-mail: email@example.com 24-hr messaging: (510)719-4747
Stimulation as a treatment tool is employed by many non-mainstream and some new mainstream medical approaches to the treatment of chronic non-viral, non-bacterial, or disturbed genetic material disease. These approaches include sensory stimulation from physical therapists, auditory stimulation for autism, movement stimulation from Feldenkrais teachers, homeopathy, EEG neurofeedback, pulsed magnetic stimulation, picoTesla stimulation, cerebral-electrical stimulation (CES), fixed or variable frequency auditory electroshock. Some of these involve stimulation (in the consumer field), insulin coma therapy, and electroshock. Some of these involve stimulation of the brain through the periphery, such as the Feldenkrais, and physical therapy approaches. The others involve a more central stimulation, clearly in a wide range of intensities. EEG-neurofeedback is the only modality which supplies consciously self-produced perturbations in the EEG; the other approaches are applied to the individual and depend on the art of the practitioner, although the conscious self-regulation of the client stops at the setting of the thresholds for feedback, and the management of the dosage. The turning out to be central nervous system (CNS) problems, is that CNS problems are all turning out to be stimulation intake, processing, and integration problems, resulting in garbled functioning in the arousal, cognition, mood, movement, and/or selected pain domains. A signature of these CNN problems is the delectability and recordability from the scalp of high amplitude, low- and mid-frequency electrical activity, When these problems are successfully treated, these kinds of activity are no longer detectable at the scalp; that is, measurable hyper-reactivity of the EEG is no longer visible at the scalp. The scientific and clinical implications of seeing EEG-neurofeedback as a form of stimulation -- in the context of the other procedures -- will be discussed.
Workshop An Empirical Approach to EEG Neurofeedback: What your mother never told you about neurofeedback, but what you were afraid was true, anyway. Len Ochs, Ph.D
- There are two kinds of patients: easy ones, and hard ones. The easy ones respond well to the smallest, briefest interventions. These are the patients that those who trained us talk about. These are the ones with the miracle-treatment stories. However, many of the problems encountered by clinician using EEG neurotherapy were not systematically talked about those who trained them, leaving us feel inadequate at worst, and frustrated at best. These are the complex protocols that defy the training views and protocols we learned during our training. In fact, there is probably no single EEG treatment system that will everything that we want to do, especially since we have a long way to go to really know what we are doing -- even though we can approach problems now that are beyond many other treatment modalities.
- This workshop starts with the reasons for preservation, irritability, confusion, anxiety - of clinicians and therapists, not the patients. These problems are generated because we have been left to thoughtless quoting of the EEG literature, parroting phrases of EEG neurotherapy teachers without thinking, and applying protocols past the time the patient stops making progress. Neither our trainers nor the literature have or can provide us with the particular treatment protocols that apply the specifics of the complicated patients before us, who linger linger in our practices after the miracle cure have departed. We are left with paucity of evaluation techniques for guiding therapy, and a lack of rules of thumb for thinking about dosage (sensor site locations, duration and frequency of sessions speed and criteria for changing thresholds). While there is ample information on what happens with particular protocols at CZ, 01, 02, C3, and C4, we are constrained to very limited sets of alternatives when those sites don’t work, or when the particular strategies used to "treat" those sites, don’t work.
- This workshop frames the problems we face as the problem of treating central nervous system problems, which is synonymous with treating problems of stimulation intake, processing, and integration. These problems affect in one degree of another, across any of the diagnoses we treat, the domains of:
- Arousal: sleeping at night, wakefulness and energy during the day; irritability, hyperactivity
- Mood: anger, explosiveness, sadness, hurt
- Cognition: concentration, attention, memory, sequencing, organizing, prioritizing
- Movement: smoothness, coordination, and balance
- Pain: fibromyalgia, tunnel syndromes, vascular types
- The strategies we use to treat are not specific to diagnosis or problem domain, however. But they are specific to the EEG patterns found across the scalp. Yet the usual topographic EEG systems, while excellent for medical-legal discrimination tasks, becomes a clumsy tool for guiding treatment (although it need not remain this way).
- You will learn in this workshop treatment tools for complex problems:
- 1. Information to apply to all types of EEG neurofeedback and not just EEG driven stimulation.
- 2. How to start to discriminate easy from more complex treatment problems during the initial phone contact.
- 3. How to frame expectations about the treatment process for gaining allies in treatment.
- 4. How to work out payment plans that will allow longer treatments.
- 5. How to minimize working with patients with whom you will suffer
- 6. The person before you
- 7. How to gauge whether you are going in the right direction.
- 8. What tools you can use (spreadsheets, databases) to guide treatment
- 9. How to understand dosage of treatment.
- 10. How to understand the signs of overdosage and what to do and say about them
- 11. Treatment strategies and principles to correct dosage problems.
- 12. How to understand the patterns patient experiences during the course of treatment.
- 13. A introduction to neocortical dynamics how they influence the course of treatment.
- 14. What to observe; how to ask questions; how to generate treatment alternatives, and then go back to making observations, etc.
- You won’t learn everything during this workshop.
- You will not learn new (ritualistic) protocols to use
- You will no find magical and easy solutions to patient’s lifelong problems.
- You will not find ways for one therapist to treat 10 patients at once.
- This workshop is for practitioners at all levels, although some experience and clarity
- about treatment disappointment with neurotherapy procedures will be useful.
- "Improving flexibility of functioning through flexible treatment"
The Grand Unified Theory of EEG Biofeedback-- Implications for Protocol Development Siegfried Othmer, Ph.D., and Susan F. Othmer, BCIAC
EEG Spectrum, 16100 Ventura Blvd., Suite 3 Encino, CA 91436-2505 800-789-3456; 818-789-3456 eegspectrm@AOL.com; SOthmer@AOL.com
The broad range of efficacy of a few EEG biofeedback protocols suggests that a few basic mechanisms underlie a wide variety of neuropsychological conditions. This suggests a reconsideration and reframing of diagnostic categories from the standpoint of these few underlying neurophysiological failure mechanisms. The EEG biofeedback protocols which follow from such considerations stand in dynamic tension with the evolving models, to the benefit of more refined models on the one hand, and more efficacious protocols on the other. The present treatment will deal equally with the emerging understanding of models of brain function and the evolving clinical protocols.
WS2 Sue Othmer Advanced Neurocybernetics Instrumentation User Practicum
WS2 Sue Othmer Case conference & clinical decision making for Beta/SMR trng
The Neuroscientific Investigation of Higher Consciousness Terry Patten
Tools for Exploration 4460 Redwood Hiway Suite 2 San Rafael, CA 94903
Neurofeedback Protocols for Chronic Pain Franklin Ramos
Hawaii Biofeedback Centers 1600 Kapiolani Blvd. Ste. 1650 Honolulu, HI 96814-3806 808-951-5544 F 808-951-5545
Neurofeedback protocols for chronic pain conditions will be emphasized in this workshop. Paticipants will learn to create protocols, read data output, and understand their foundations as applied to the patient’s condition. The participant will learn to generalize use of these protocols to other CNS disorders such as brain trauma, migraine, anxiety, depression, and ADD/ADHD. Case studies will be presented; bring your cases for sharing.
Mind-reading with brain waves: lie detection,malingering, detection, taxonomies of deception, and false memories. J. Peter Rosenfeld
Professor, Department of Psychology Northwestern University 102 Swift Hall Evanston, IL, 60208
Phone: 847-491-3629 Fax: 847-491-7859 firstname.lastname@example.org
We pioneered the use of the P300 event-related potential as a novel channel for detection deception. Basically, when you recognize something (like a murder weapon you used), your brain will respond (with a P300) to the name or sight of it, even if you verbally deny this recognition. Or your brain will respond to your phone number on a display screen even if you claim such extreme head injury and memory disturbance that you cannot recognize it. More recently, we have looked at the brain MAP of P300s in various conditions, e.g., lying and truth-telling, and shown a deception-specific map. One can also distinguish between types of deception(self-aggrandizing vs altruistic) using brain maps. One can further distinguish between psychopaths lying versus normals lying.
Finally, one can distinguish between real memories, honestly believed but false memories, and malingered false memories. In this talk, I will review our research in some of these areas.
Workshop: Fundamentals of neurobiology in partial preparation for the BCIA-EEG Certification Exam. Peter Rosenfeld
This workshop will cover the bioelectric origins of EEG in terms of post-synaptic potentials. It will also cover basics about neuronal discharge, synaptic transmission, and general neuroanatomy. The latter topic will be reviewed with a focus on how the non-specific, reticular activating system brings about cortical activation ("beta") and mediates the transition from rhythmic, synchronous, slow wave activity (alpha, theta). The workshop will also review basic EEG recording montages, and methods of frequency analysis and brain mapping(QEEG). It will also quickly review derivatives of EEG, such as Event-Related Potentials and Spectral Perturbations, and how these may be used diagnostically. There will finally be a critical review of the field of neurofeedback, in which treatments for ADD,Addictions, Depression, and Seizure disorders are covered. Time permitting, we will also review the experimental biofeedback of pain-related event-related potentials and effects on pain perception.
STUDENTS LEARN BIOFEEDBACK: The critical successes of The Ripple Effect, an EEG Brain Wave Biofeedback Program in a Yonkers public school. Mary Jo Sabo
Pain & Stree Biofeedback Ctr. 15 Perlman Drive Spring Valley, NY 10977 (914)356-2392 914-357-8311 F 914 356-8865
MaryJo Sabo will discuss the pilot study results and a case study of The Ripple Effect program. Recent media attention and the role of school administrators, parents, staff and political figures will be defined.
2 hr workshop THE RIPPLE EFFECT: An in depth discussion of Brainwave biofeedback training in a public school. Mary Jo Sabo
DESCRIPTION: For over three years, MaryJo Sabo and the Biofeedback Consultants Inc. Team have developed and expanded a research-oriented EEG Brain Wave Biofeedback Program in a public urban school. The Program, referred to as The Ripple Effect, explores the Theta/Beta Ratio and currently trains over 30 students. This workshop will focus on how the Program began, initial challenges, funding, methodology, data collection and analysis, including immediate and long-term outcomes. Also discussed will be how the program blends with the public school system's existing special education procedures. Group and case studies will be explored.
The Right Orbital Frontal Lobe: Master Regulator of Brain and Body - In Sickness and in Health. Carole Schneider
Colorado Ctr. for Bio Health 1526 Spruce Street, Ste 302 Boulder, CO 80302 303-449-2364 (303)449-8815 fax (303)449-6825
Perhaps the first documented case of right frontal lobe injury as correlated with altered personality and emotional dyscontrol is that of Phineas Gage, who, in the 1860's, survived a railroad spike entering under his chin and existing through the top of head.
Since 1994, four important books have been written describing right brain function in sickness and/or in health . A recent issue of the ISSEEM Newsletter concerns right orbito frontal functioning (ROFC). Why all the interest in this area? This presentation will make the case that the ROFC is the master regulator of the brain and the primary location of the "self", the place where the "I" is located. At its core are emotional regulation capabilities, as well as recognition f emotions coming from the other.
Damasio has described the ROFC as having the most comprehensive and integrated map of the body state to the brain and as a convergence zone which is privy to signals about virtually any activity taking place in our beings, mind or body at anytime. The ROFC is the hierarchically dominant regulator of visual tracking, muscle tone, cardiac control, temperature regulation, the immune system and neurotransmitter production. Appraisals are made here of both sensory and social data.
This area is remarkably vulnerable to injury and is affected in PTSD, causing serious consequences for functioning which will be presented. EEG researches and therapists are challenged as to how to measure and treat with surface EEG disturbances in the functioning of an area tucked away on the underside of the prefrontal cortex.
THE CHALLENGE OF ONE MEDICINE: EIGHT WORLD HYPOTHESES PLUS ONE Gary E. R. Schwartz, Ph.D. & Linda G. S. Russek, Ph.D. Gary E. R. Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology, Neurology, Psychiatry, and Medicine Director, Human Energy Systems Laboratory Co-facilitator in Energy Medicine, Program in Integrative Medicine Department of Psychology University of Arizona Box 210068 Tucson, AZ 85721-0068 Phone (520) 621-5497 FAX (520) 621-9306 E-mail: gschwart@U.Arizona.EDU
As medicine moves from conventional to complementary and alternative medicine, the challenge of integrating medicine - of creating one medicine - is daunting. Drawing on Pepper's concept of World Hypotheses, Schwartz and Russek have described eight world hypotheses: The first two reflect Pepper's classical world hypotheses, the second two reflect Pepper's modern world hypotheses, and the remaining four reflect post modern integrative or visionary world hypotheses. Using neurotherapy as an example, we illustrate how the eight world hypotheses inform and integrate science in general, and medicine in particular. The visionary world hypotheses address energy and invisible forces (the implicit process hypothesis), memory and evolution in all systems, include water (the circular causality hypothesis), purpose and plans in all systems (the creative unfolding hypothesis), and universal integration of diverse phenomena (the integrative-diversity hypothesis). A new vision linking science and spirituality unfold from this perspective. Finally, the whole framework itself is shown to be an expression of an implicit world hypothesis (a meta-world hypothesis) termed the compassionate openness hypothesis. Compassionate openness reflects a passion for possibility that is at the heart of science and spirituality. Concrete applications for clinical practice and research will be illustrated.
"TIME IS WHAT A LIFE IS MADE OF." Henry I. Russek, M.D.
workshop ENERGY MEDICINE AND BIOENERGY FEEDBACK Gary E. R. Schwartz, Ph.D.
This workshop presents the latest in theory and research concerning the emerging new science of energy medicine and its clinical applications, and introduces the new idea of bioenergy feedback - the transition from biofeedback to bioenergy feedback. The workshop begins with a review of systems theory and concepts of biophysical energy, and illustrates the profound implications that unfold when these two areas are conceptually and clinically married. Theory, research, and clinical applications of energy cardiology and energy neurology are illustrated. Research from the Human Energy Systems Laboratory at the University of Arizona are discussed, including new findings on hand energy registration and effects of Qigong on distant random event generators. Applications to bioenergy feedback will be discussed. Implications for understanding the healing effects of intentionality and prayer will be discussed, with practical applications to clinical treatment and prevention. Advances in technology, present and future, will be discussed as well.
2 hr Workshop: Using alpha theta with addictions. William Scott
This workshop is intended for those either working in chemical dependency and / or those wanting to improve effectiveness with this population.
Topics include: 12-step integration, imagery inductions, predicting outcomes,detecting resistance and theraputic interventions, similarities and differences, and a demonstration session.
The Effectiveness of Brainwave Entrainment As a Treatment Modality For Chronic Pain Dave Siever Mike Twittey
Comptronic Devices Limited University of Alberta 2nd floor, 9876A - 33 Avenue Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6N 1C6
Keywords: Brainwave entrainment, chronic pain, DAVID
Chronic pain from injury and fibromyalgia) often has devastating effects on the lives of the people it inflicts, forcing them to rely on careful daily planning and heavy medication. Brainwave entrainment (BWE) was used as the treatment modality for several chronic pain sufferers relating to occupational injury by Dr. Fred Boersma. The results of some cases will be presented. More recently, BWE was used on 12 persons suffering from pain related to fibromyalgia and injury. The participants were screened on the Beck Depression (p< 0.05) and the Visual Analogue Pain (p<.005) inventories. The effects of this non-drug therapy had surpassed that of drugs and alternate therapies used by the participants.
workshop: 2 hrs: The Development of Brainwave Entrainment Technology Dave Siever
- Claim: The uses of BWE technology are wide reaching. How BWE works and its associated clinical applications in hypnosis, dentistry, pain management, insomnia, headache, PMS and learning disabilities is demonstrated based on a review of XXX studies in the literature and three studies by the presenter.
- The course will cover the development of BWE technology, starting with the discovery of photic driving to clinical applications which have been reported on since 1959. The specific clinical applications addressed will include hypnosis, dental applications, treatment of headache, learning disabilities, pain management, and insomnia/sleep and slow brainwave disorders.
- Objectives: The participants will have learned:
- I) An understanding of the general history and development of BWE technology.
- ii) The rules of BWE (ie. what is physically required of the photic and auditory stimulation to have an impact the brain and mind of its users).
- iii) Details of research conducted by various authors applying BWE technology in hypnosis, reduction anxiety, stress, dental applications, headache, PMS and insomnia and the stimulation methods used to treat these conditions.
- iv) Spectral analysis charts on the effects of sweep sessions using harmonic eyesets for treatment of slow brainwave disorders will be presented.
- This course is designed for those who are wishing to expand their knowledge and understanding of this "new" technology as an alternate method in helping with the various ailments such as chronic pain, insomnia, PMS and Attention Deficit Disorder.
- Biographical Sketch
- Dave Siever, a graduate from the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology, is president of Comptronic Devices Limited where he designs and conducts research on brainwave entrainment (BWE) devices. From 1980 to 1986, Dave designed electronic diagnostic, TENS and biofeedback equipment at the Faculty of Dentistry and Educational Psychology at the University of Alberta where he also assisted in TMJ related studies.
OPEN FOCUS & NEUROFEEDBACK ASSISTED PSYCHOTHERAPY Susan Shor-Fehmi, C.S.W.
Manhattan BF & Stress Mgmt. 30 Lincoln Plaza, Suite 16A New York, NY 10023
212-265-1983, home 609-924-0782 fax 609-924-0782
Psychotherapy is a dynamic exploration of content and process; as content, thoughts and feelings and reactions are understood in the context of how they are processed. It is generally accepted that we may not be able to change what happens to us. However, we do have the power to alter the way in which we process these content events and thus alter the nature of our experience. Open Focus training provides an experience of the attentional states associated with various processing styles, while neurofeedback assists in coaching us in how to better manifest these attentional states, these processing styles. By employing Open Focus and neurofeedback training, a psychotherapist can impact the flexible processing of content by making the choice of attention styles a conscious behavior.
Retardation & Autism Case Studies; Fast Response to Since Hertz Neurofeedback. Sheila Steele
- 1200 King’s Crown Rd. Woodland Park, CO 80863 719-687-1388
- Two boys: one with autism, age 8; the other with mild retardation, age 12, showed amazing responsiveness to single-hertz band neurofeedback, demonstrated by quick improvement in similar aspects of function and behavior.
- Both boys also have ADHD. Significant increase in vocabulary, following the third session, was reported by parents/relatives in each case, along with substantial increase in verbalization in the autistic child, and improved expressive skills in the 12-yr-old. Language & speech skills were areas of major concern in both cases. The autistic child initially spoke very little and was difficlut to understand. Teachers indicated similar improvements in the classroom.
- Other traits-in-common (though consistently more severe in the autistic child) which showed major improvement were:
- Awareness of self, others, & environment
- Self-reliance: trying new things
- Class participation
- Interaction with others
- Short-term memory
- Increased interest in books, reading
- Eye-contact (especially in the autistic boy)
- ADHD behaviors such as: temper tantrums & concentration
- Touch-sensitivity and encopresis also improved significantly, as did writing skills.
- Neurofeedback decreased incredibly strong initial EEG levels of 200-285mv in the 12-yr-old and 125-150mv in the autistic boy, by 20-30+% for total microvolts/site, primarily by rewarding spike reduction in the peak frequencies of 5.5HZ and 9+HZ. Fourteen sessions were done with the autistic child, at CZ or C3, mainly watching the monitor, occasionally engaged in a cognitive task.
- With the 12-yr-old, NF was done at CZ or PZ, mostly with eyes closed, responding to a tone, for 24 sessions. He made the honor-roll after 3 weeks of NF, though teachers were unaware he was doing NF.
ISSUES IN TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING FOR NEUROFEEDBACK PROVIDERS M. Barry Sterman, Ph.D
Departments of Neurobiology and Psychiatry, School of Medicine, UCLA
A fundamental fact that is often overlooked when considering the application of QEEG Topographic Mapping as an aid to Neurofeeback practice is the unique objective of this application within this context. Clinical diagnosis is not and should not be the primary concern. Presumably, this has already been provided by other professionals or other tools. Instead, an accurate characterization of EEG pattern abnormalities is needed to help guide the development of a rational treatment strategy. It should be remembered that both documented experimental findings and accepted theoretical considerations stress normalization of the EEG as the primary objective of clinical neurofeedback. While there are several standard treatment protocols with relatively broad application they should still be based on and evaluated by this objective. This presentation examines both the strengths and weaknesses of current QEEG methods from this perspective.
A NEW APPROACH TO EVALUATION AND APPLICATIONS IN NEUROFEEDBACK: EVENT-RELATED EEG RESPONSES M. Barry Sterman, Ph.D and David A. Kaiser, Ph.D
- School of Medicine, UCLA, and EEG Spectrum, Encino, California
- David Kaiser EEG Spectrum 16100 Ventura Blvd., Suite 3 Encino, CA 91436-2505
- 800-789-3456; 818- 789-3456 http://www.eegspectrum.com DAKaiser@AOL.com
- A unique methodology for the focused evaluation of functional EEG dynamics is achieved when task-related stimuli are transient and repetitive. Under these circumstances the suppression, or desynchronization, of components within the dominant resting EEG frequency can be detected through the average of responses in the frequency domain at time intervals surrounding the point of stimulation. Initially described by Pfutscheller and his colleagues as "event-related desynchronization", or ERD, it is now apparent that event- related EEG responses can involve both suppression and enhancement of various frequency components. When the dominant 8-12 Hz band is facilitated this response is called "event-related synchronization", or ERS. These measures provide a means for examination of the timing, degree, and functional specificity of cortical responses to cognitive events .
- We have conducted a series of experiments using an FFT-based approach with custom analysis software to study ERD/ERS patterns in a variety of applications. From a physiological point of view this method has proven effective in the quantitative evaluation of topographic EEG characteristics related both to engagement and the processing of topographic EEG characteristics related both to tngagement and the processing of significant environmental stimuli, and the effects of fatigue on these response patterns. In applied studies it has proven useful in the assessment of such cognitive variables as interest, thermatic comprehension, and perceptual classification.
- This workshop will review the methodology employed in the acquisition and analysis of event-related EEG responses and the findings from our studies and those of others using this method. Further, it will explore applications of this tool in performance evaluation, interest assesment, and commercial marketing.
- The potential extension of this methodology to the next generation of neurofeedback training strategies will also be examined.
TOOLS FOR EXPLANATION: THE TOPOMETRIC QEEG EVALUATION FOR NEUROFEEDBACK APPLICATIONS M. Barry Sterman, Ph.D.
The content of this course is based on Dr. Sterman’s more than 35 years of research and clinical experience with the mammalian EEG. Starting with studies of sleep and waking states in cats and monkeys, he was the first to describe the SMR, show that it could be brought under experimental control through EEG operant conditioning, and evaluate the functional significance of it and other cortical EEG rhythms using this method together with sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral techniques. He discovered a protective effect against seizures with SMR operant conditioning in animals and extended this finding into a treatment of seizure disorders in humans. During the last decade he has used contemporary computer-based EEG analysis methods to study the functional components of cognitive performance in normal subjects. This progression has paralleled the modern development of concept and technology in both electroencephalography and neurofeedback. It has led to both a theoretical and practical appreciation of what the EEG can tell us about the brain’s functioning and how it can be used appropriately as a tool for examining and altering brain function.
Accordingly, this workshop is directed to an understanding of what the EEG is, where it comes from, what it tells us about neural functioning, and how to use it effectively to assess functional status. Its objectives are to review methods and concepts in depth, with a view to proper use and rational interpretation based on documented findings and principles. The QEEG is presented as a tool for evaluation within the context of neurofeedback protocols and strategies, and not for clinical diagnosis. Important factors such as time of day, task engagement, sample variability, and functional organization are stressed, instead of shallow and limited actuarial-type statistical outcomes and superficial interpretations. Additionally, a new "Topometric Analysis System" will be introduced, which is directed to a functionally relevant and statistically valid evaluation of topographic data for neurofeedback applications.
Are Different Ethical Principles or Practice Standards Needed for Those Providing EEG Biofeedback?
Sebastian "Seb" Striefel, Ph.D.
CPD USU , Logan UT 84322-6800 (801)496-5745 (801)753-4540 fax: (802)797-2044 email: email@example.com
Many practitioners are confused about which ethical principles and practice standards to apply when providing EEG Biofeedback services. Some believe that ethical principles and practice standards unique to EEG Biofeedback are needed. This presentatiion will discuss several common issues encountered by the practitioner in reference to ethics and practice, including: experimental versus clinical efficacy procedures, competence, legal practice, dual relationships, and confidentiality and informed consent. Guidance on how to proceed in daily practice will be discussed, e.g., a potential guideline for determining which EEG intervention areas are experimental and which have demonstrated clinical efficacy.
Bio: Seb' Striefel, Ph.D. is a full professor in the Psychology Department and the Director of the Division of Services at the Center for Persons with Disabilities at Utah State University. He regularly teaches courses in Ethics, Standards, Law and Professional Conduct; Clinical Applications of Biofeedback and Clinical Strategies for Relaxation and Stress Management. He writes a regular column on Ethics for the newsletter of the Association of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB). He also conducts workshops on ethics and professional conduct nationwide. Seb' is the current president of AAPB.
Supplemental treatments to NF Paul Swingle
1260 Hornby, Vancouver, BC V6Z1W2 Canada 604-683-1949 F 604-683-9114
Practitioners are increasingly prescribing or administering treatment adjunctive to EEG Feedback to enhance the efficacy of Neurotherapy. Indeed, much of the disagreement regarding the labeling of the practice as Neuorfeedback versus Neurotherapy is based on differences between those practitioners who restrict treatment to EEG feedback and those who administer other procedures which modify brainwave architecture. Treatments adjuctive to EEG feedback will be reviewed. These will include audio harmonics. Microamperage stimulation and craniosacral manipulations. Data indicating changes in EEG activity will be presented and specific treatment protocols will be reviewed. Significantly, all of these treatments are subtle, often at energy levels that are below the sensory discrimination threshold.
Interventions for ADD Finger in the Dyke or Fix the Leak Michael & Lynda Thompson
ADD Centres Ltd.50 Village Centre Place, Mississauga, ON, Canada L4Z 1V9 905-803-8066
Times really have changed. In the past we stuck our finger in the leaking dyke and used short term interventions including stimulants and behaviour modification. Today we prefer to fix the dyke by empowering the student using neurofeedback. While doing this we mop up some of the sea that has already gotten out of control and leaked through the dyke by adding to our training program. We offer a balanced diet of metacognitive strategies for learning, biofeedback to decrease tension and increase alertness, healthy foods and vitamins, and a potpourri of simple to use techniques to help families with organization, communication, and a positive approach to each others idiosyncrasies (behaviour problems). Occasionally there is a role for the short term use of medication. This multimodal approach forms the basis for a new publication, The ADD Book, New Understandings, New Approaches from Little Brown, N.Y. by Dr. William Sears and Dr. Lynda Thompson.
In this presentation we will give an overview of this approach. We will also discuss the results of this work with over a hundred clients. Pre and post testing scores using the EEG, TOVA, WRAT-3, and Wechsler Intelligence Scales will be presented. Discussion includes different sub-types of ADD and our approach to assisting with these. The degree of student improvement varies and factors which may contribute to excellent versus mediocre results will be reviewed.
4 hr WORKSHOP Effective Interventions For ADD Lynda & Michael Thompson
Description: In the past we used short term interventions including medications and behaviour modification to help both our child and adult clients with ADD. Today we are able to offer more lasting solutions. The ADD Centre program has as its foundation, neurofeedback. But neurofeedback training, though necessary for a lasting change, is not necessarily sufficient to effect maximum improvement. In addition the ADD Centre program offers a balanced diet of metacognitive strategies for learning, biofeedback to decrease tension and increase alertness, advice on a healthy diet and supplements and a potpourri of simple to use techniques to help families with organization, communication, and a positive approach to each others idiosyncrasies (behaviour problems). Occasionally there is certainly a role for the short term use of medication. This multimodal approach forms the basis for a new publication, The ADD Book, New Understandings, New Approaches from Little Brown, N.Y. by Dr. William Sears and Dr. Lynda Thompson.
In this workshop we will describe these interventions and how they are combined for different presentations of ADD. This workshop will outline: (1) a feedback program using EEG, EDR and peripheral temperature for ADD clients; (2) teach learning strategies to improve reading, listening, organizing and remembering and, (3) show how neurofeedback and metacognitive strategies are combined in the ADD Centres program, (4) provide an opportunity for discussing strategies for helping parents reorganize household time and job management in a manner that models both an efficient and a positive approach to accomplishing tasks, (5) discuss strategies for increasing the ADD childs self esteem through study-time techniques which reinforce the strategies being taught with neurofeedback in the centre.
- more detailed workshop descriptioon
- Metacognition Combined with Neurofeedback: an Effective Educational Approach to ADD
- 1. For Child Clients
- 2. For Adult Clients
- Target Audience:
- Participants may be at any stage of experience: however, the objectives are worded to apply to participants who have had some experience with the use of neurofeedback with children and / or adults who have ADD or ADHD.
- Terminal Objective: To enable the participants to be able to apply the combined approach of Metacognitive strategies and Neurofeedback to ameliorate the symptoms (short attention span, distractibility, impulsive approach to work) of ADD and the associated academic difficulties, including underacheivement due to a disorganized approach to work.
- Enabling Objectives:
- At the completion of the seminar the participants should be able:
- 1. to distinguish sub-groups of ADD children and apply the correct use of SMR vs beta training to each group.
- · impulsive (may be either under or over aroused)
- · non-impulsive
- 2. to select appropriate electrode placement which may vary with arousal, impulsivity and presence or absence of language difficulties.
- · to recognize and distinguish two groups of children with ADD according to their level of alertness and apply the appropriate EDR feedback to each group.
- · under-aroused
- · over-aroused
- 3. To recognize three groups of ADD Adults and apply appropriate training strategies for each group.
- Metacognitive Strategies:
- At the completion of the seminar the participants should be able:
- 1. to define metacognition
- 2. to apply a 4 step metacognitive strategy for junior high, high school and college students
- · to reading new material
- · to listening to lectures
- 3. to apply a 3-3-3 step metacognitive strategy
- · to organizing a written or verbal presentation
- 4. to apply cognitive strategies to elementary school math and reading
- 5. to improve a clients setting of goals and management of time (high school and adult clients)
- Metacognition combined with Neurofeedback:
- At the completion of the seminar the participants should be able:
- 1. to develop a training protocol for an ADD client that combines appropriate neurofeedback, EDR and peripheral temperature feedback, and training in metacognitive strategies.
- Description of Seminar:
- This seminar will be hands-on: First the participants will partake in a reading assignment and, second, they will do a quick written assignment. After discussion of strategies used, one volunteer will be hooked up for neurofeedback and others will assist to train her combining learning strategies with brain-wave feedback. Discussion will include methods to be used at home.
- To get the seminar started, a short didactic lecture at the beginning will cover the sub-types of ADD and appropriate Neurofeedback approaches to each and introduce the concept of metacognition. This will be followed by the participants being challenged with a brief reading assignment that is given to students at the ADD Centres who are in grade 7 and above. When the participants have completed this task there will be a discussion of the techniques they used and these will be compared with the approach of children and even college level students with ADD.
- The leaders will present a 4 step strategic approach to reading, preparing for exams or presentations, and listening to boring lecture materials. The participants will then be invited to spend a few minutes reading a passage using the metacognitive approaches just discussed and discussing the differences they experienced when using these techniques. They will repeat this procedure revamping the lecture outline they had previously worked on.
- Participants will then be given a short, fun, challenging written assignment to organize. However, like often happens to busy students, they only have a few minutes to organize how they are going to present their material. The 3-3-3 writing strategy will then be discussed.
- Organizing thinking processes, using strategies for efficient reading, and practicing various visual and auditory/verbal memory techniques will be emphasized. Throughout the presentation the rationale for combining neurofeedback with training and learning skills will be underscored. This combination effectively improves performance and leads to high levels of customer satisfaction. Clients have immediate benefits from applying metacognitive strategies and long term benefits from the combination of strategies and neurofeedback.
THE THINKING CAP BLOOD FLOW MODALITY Hershel Toomim Sc.D., Biocomp Research Institute Docteur Antoine Remond Directeur de Researche CNRS
- Communications should be addressed to: Hershel Toomim Sc.D. Biocomp Research Institute 1370 S. Robertson Blvd. Suite 216 Culver City, CA. 90232
- Key Words: 1. Thinking Cap 2. Brain Blood Flow 3. rCBF
- The use of regional brain blood flow (rCBF) as an intentiionally controllable quantity has been discovered and verified experimentally. This provides a completely new, simple, and artifact resistant modality for Neurofeedback.
- In this paper, the clinical results with 4 patients in 10 exposures of 30 to 40 minutes duration is presented.
- Significant improvements occurred in only 10 sessions as measured with T.O.V.A. and MicroCog.
- The major part of the learning experience is shown to occur in the first session, a significant reduction in training time.
- Evidence is presented of increased vascularity in the treated brain regions. This provide a physiological basis for the increased brain efficiency so frequently found in Neurofeedback.
INTENTIONAL CONTROL OF BRAIN BLOOD FLOW with the THINKING CAP ™
Hershel Toomim, Antoine Remond
- INTRODUCTION: Increased blood flow to active brain areas is demonstrated in many PET, fMRI, and SPECT studies. Many such studies have shown abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in brain disorders such as Schizophrenia, Alzheimers, Parkinsons, Attention Deficit Disorder , substance abuse, depression, dementia and others (1). Blood flow to the brain underlies all mental activities. Blood supplies oxygen and glucose to support energy requirements of brain metabolism. The Delta and Theta activity in the EEG has also been shown shown to correlate highly to rCBF (2,3,11,16).
- Studies of brain activities using one of these instruments show increased blood flow and metabolism in brain areas activated by the experimental subject during selected brain functions. The subject has no awareness of the brain locale activated. The choice of active locales seems entirely automatic
- I observe with the Thinking Cap that all locales we have tested can be intentionally activated.
- Increased vascularity developed by exercise in enhanced environments has been demonstrated in rodents (M.Rosensweig, 1962, and Diamond, (4)) but has not been shown in humans.
- This study examines intentional increase of blood perfusion in a chosen brain area when the subject is suitably informed of the rCBF of that brain region. I observe that increased blood perfusion at the chosen sites becomes available during inter-session intervals as a result of repeated brain exercise of suitable duration.
- An instrument was constructed to utilize the translucent characteristics of the scalp and skull to examine the oxygenation of capillary beds in cerebral cortex (6,7,8,9,10,13). Dual light sources in contact with the scalp provide cortical illumination. A headband was constructed containing adjacent red and infrared light emitting diodes, (LED), operating at 30 milliwatts input and an amplifier photo receiver spaced 3 cm. from the LED midline. The instrument calculates the ratio of returned scattered and reflected red (660 nm) to near infrared (920 nm) light. The instrument gives relative values which are not affected by intersubject variations such as intervenng sinus volumes or cerebral spinal fluid filled spaces. Both light wavelengths encounter the same path and obstacles The ratio computation, therefore, reduces the effect of variation of initial intensity and variation of the intervening tissue volume This ratio closely approximates the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated cortical blood. It uses the differing absorption characteristics of oxy vs deoxy-hemoglobin illustrated in Fig I..
- Arterial pulsations are usually negligible. The arteries form a small proportion of the tissue volume compared to the capillaries. Capillary blood is the most likely source measured.
- Voluntary control of blood flow at the sampled position was immediately apparent while the instrument was under development. Intentional increase of oxygenation was undertaken by 120 volunteers. Most subjects found intense concentration on the task increased the reading of the instrument placed over the left prefrontal cortex at Fp1. Concentration greatly facilitated a rise in indicated oxygenation. Occasionally a volunteer was unable to effect an average increase without coaching. It was generally observed that learning to manipulate the indication at Fp1 required less than 3 minutes. It was often reported that this form of brain exercise was intense, tiring, and self limiting. It could be tolerated for a only a limited time before rest was desired. Most subjects reported a somewhat awakened state after a 10 minute exercise period. Two of the 120 trial subjects experienced unusual mood changes; increased irritability accompanied by improved concentration and working memory. These two had tested positive for attention deficit disorder (ADD) on the T.O.V.A.™.
- Figure 2 is a composite graph for 4 subjects’ initial 10 second training intervals. The subject were instructed to increase the readings on subsequent 10 second intervals.. The graph reflects blood perfusion at the beginning of each session.. The figure shows that changes occurred in the inter-session interval when the subjects were engaged in ordinary daily activities. There is a growth effect of the preceding session. The correlation coefficient, .902 for the 4 subjects’ data shown by Figure 2, is consistent with the hypothesis that rCBF can be intentionally controlled by a subject when given suitable current information. (r=.902, p< .05). This graph also illustrates that increased blood perfusion occurs during the days between sessions.
- A test of the ratio of maximum achieved rCBF to initial rCBF within the sessions shows that only small increases in proficiency occur after the first session. This result suggests that most of the required learning is easy and occurs in the first session with only a small effect later. Since later learning contributes only a small amount to the changes between sessions it seems likely that a physiological change contributes to the measured increases in available blood supply. The data thus support the findings of Rosensweig and Diamond that experience modifies the physiology of the brain.
- . It has been observed with the instrument applied to the forehead at any prefrontal position: (1) Mental processes such as doing arithmetic increase instrument readings. (2) Relaxation and reduced mentation reduce readings. (3) Rapid deep breathing has a small effect on instrument readings (14). This is probably due the 99% oxygen saturation of arterial blood delivered to the brain (17).
- The right and left anterior temporal arteries supply the major portion of forehead skin and muscles (Grays Anatomy p 495). Variation of the oxygen content of these arteries or the tissues they supply has a negligible effect on instrument readings. With the instrument mounted at Fp1 occlusion of the anterior temporal arteries at the level of the auditory meatus, which supplies blood to the forehead area, reduces readings by less than 5%.. Perfusion of the scalp is thus shown to have a very small effect on the readings.
- Now that one can direct blood to deficient cortical areas a new dimension to brain therapies has been added. One can speculate that there is therapeutic value in directed voluntary control of rCBF to specific brain sites. This remains to be validated and is being actively pursued.
- Some therapeutic results have accumulated to date:
- (1) Amen, D.G., New Directions in the Theory and Treatment of Mental Disorders: The use of SPECT imaging in Every Day Clinical Practice. The Neuropsychology of Mental Disorders. Kosiol,L.F. and Stout,C.E., Eds, Chas Thomas and Sons Pub, Ch 15:286-311
- (2) Berger, H., Das Electroenkphalogram des Menchen. Nova Acta Leop., 1938, 6:173-309
- (3) Buchsbaum, K.S., Kessler,R., Johnson,J., and Capeletti, Simultaneous Cerebral Glucography with Positron Emission Tomography and Topographic Encephlography . Ischemia: Quantitative EEG and Imaging Tchniques. Progress in Research, Vol 63,pp.263-370
- Brain Blood Flow Course Hershel Toomim Outline
- I Instrumentation Principles
- Demonstration of Thinking Cap with Volunteer
- Show Feedback bar graph 3 minutes
- Discuss with volunteer strategy
- Show light absorption curves hemoglobin vs wavelength
- Discuss theory of Thinking Cap operation
- Discuss depth of penetration
- Discuss surface skin blood source
- Demonstrate occlusion of External Temporal Artery
- II Therapy Results
- Show 10 session T.O.V.A. comparison
- Show 10 session MicroCog Comparison
- Discuss Case with behavioral changes to date
- Show 10 session composite blood flow graph
- Discuss increase in capillary density and lumen size
- III Instrument Application
- Show ease of application
- Absence of skin preparation
- Discuss details of application
- Need for external light exclusion
- Use of hat to shade photo system
- from overhead lights
- Determination of adequate signal levels with
- appropriate key strokes
- Discuss effect of cerebral strokes
- Discuss placement position
- Discuss effect of hair
- Discuss placement as function of blood deficit
- IV Relationship to EEG
- Show graphs of simultaneous Blood Flow with EEG feedback
- Show graphs of simultaneous EEG with Blood Flow feedback
- Discuss expected relationship
- Beta to Theta EEG ratio and blood flow
- Discuss Artifacts in EEG and in Brain Blood Flow
- V Proposed Therapy Structure
- Establish History of disorder
- Discuss impact on therapy
- Establish intake baselines
- Point out usefulness of Baselines
- Suggested baseline exams:
- Discuss usefulness of findings
- Cognitive Functioning
- Discuss impact on therapy
- Brain Map
- Discuss impact on therapy
- An Educators' Perspective: Brain Wave Training as an Educational Tool in a Public School Setting. Linda Vergara
- Linda Vergara, Enrico Fermi School 27 Poplar St. Yonkers NY 10701 914-376-8460
- Aggressive, oppositional behavior are indicators of students at risk. these behavioral problems are often associated with ADD/ADHD in the school setting often disturbing the learning process for all students. Through brain wave training, aberrant behavior stabilizes, and the student's interaction in and out of the classroom dramatically improves. This ripple effect ultimately effects the community at large.
- This workshop will focus on the results of implementation of Neurofeedback in a Public School Setting. The following areas will be discussed: Funding source, working within the confines of a school board, and the effect on the students during the past three years.
- The Intermental Network
- Dr. Dave Warner, Institute for Interventional Informatics 500 University Place Syracuse, NY 13210 Web: www.pulsar.org
- Interventional Informatics, the intentional utilization of information and information technology to alter the outcome of a dynamic process, will play an ever greater part in the future of medical services. Distributed medical intelligence services are emerging as viable entities supporting the practice of medicine. The transition from center based medical services to Internet based distributed medical knowledge services is made economically feasible by the increased accessibility to the global communication infrastructure.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute primarily to a conceptual preparation for the transformations which have begun to redefine the practice of medicine in the age of the Internet.
New computers, communication and peripheral devices from biological, quantum, superconducting and other technologies promise UltraScale computing. One of the most obvious but still interesting biological computers is that represented by Nature's premier computer - the Human mind. There is the potential world (and space) wide linkage of billions of such human minds with large numbers of constructed devices (traditional computers) which form an Intermental network. We do not envisage this as a glorified next generation World Wide Web as this implies that each client (human mind) links essentially independently to a single server in a given transaction. The World's Wisdom is obtained by the incoherent sum of individual contributions. Rather as in a parallel computer, our Intermental computer will link entities coherently and synchronously together to tackle a single problem. Further as described below, our concept is a major extension of the interesting and still developing shared immersive virtual environments. In the latter, one represents the world classically by the actions of other people on it. In contrast, an Intermental net directly represents other participants through a rendering of their perceptual state.
An Intermental network reverses the traditional role of the human as the user of the computer system. Rather than the human as the usually asynchronous viewer of the computer's possibly parallel computations, we consider the conventional computer network as an aid to the parallel synchronous interactive Intermental network of linked minds. In another reversal, we are not trying to modulate an individual's perceptual state by an accurate representation of the physical world; rather our main aim is more effective modulation of the physical environment through an accurate synthesis of the perceptual state of the linked minds.
We use the term "mind" to mean "consciously experienced perceptual state-space". Thus the concept of "linked minds" of the Intermental network will refer to the capability of the network to modulate a coherent (phase consistent) co-perceptualization across a number of individual "minds" for the purpose of synthesizing a collective intelligence which will influence future iterations of a computational process. This Intermental linkage will allow the individual users to perceive the collective response dynamics of other minds while these minds reach states based on the knowledge of actions of the whole. Our multi-modal perception and expression systems (wearable computers), which are critical part of this proposal, are designed to enhance and optimize the inevitably imperfect representation of each mind's state as it is transmitted through digital filters and networks and seen by others in the Intermental net. This leads to each mind having additional perceptual dimensions corresponding to either the state of individual minds or the Intermental net's synthesis of a group perceptual state. This gives rise to a form of quasi-self awareness, where the computational properties of individual units are influenced by the state of the whole system. We believe that this experience of co-perceptual processes will lead to the emergence of new computational capacity not currently possible with current asynchronous networks linking incoherent (sequential) minds.
This Intermental network extends the familiar concept of a shared virtual environment where users respond to a changing system without direct knowledge of the thought processes (perceptual states) of other users. Rather than perceiving the other participants' perceptual states indirectly through their action on the physical environment, an Intermental network provides to each user direct awareness of the probable perceptual states of the other players at any moment.
- Neural Networks as Diagnostic Decision Support Tools in Medicine
- Mark D. Wiederhold, M.D., Ph.D. Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation La Jolla, California
- and Brenda K. Wiederhold, M.S., MBA Center for Advanced Multimedia Psychotherapy CSPP Research and Service Foundation San Diego, California
- Artificial neural networks are computer software tools that can be trained by example to recognize distinct subsets from complex data. As physiological monitoring continues to advance, more complex simultaneous real-time data is produced. Complex data, for example EEG tracings, are often difficult to interpret visually, and often contain important differences in waveform morphology that can be easily missed. In addition, evaluation of multiple data streams further complicates data analysis. Neural networks are useful as classifiers of data, and can often recognize subtle differences in digitized data between control and experimental subjects. An overview of neural networks is presented here with emphasis on real-time analysis of complex data. Advanced neural network analysis can provide a real-time tool for patient evaluation while physiological monitoring is occurring.
- Potential appliccations of this approach include real-time data analysis during clinical biofeedback sessions.
- Real-Time Physiological Monitoring In Virtual Therapy
- Brenda K. Wiederhold, M.S., MBA Center for Advanced Multimedia Psychotherapy CSPP Research and Service Foundation San Diego, California
- and Mark D. Wiederhold, M.D., Ph.D. Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation La Jolla, California
- Virtual environments (VE) have been used to successfully treat mental health disorders for the past five years. These include such disorders as fear of flying, fear of heights, fear of spiders, and eating disorders. Other studies are currently underway to treat attention-deficit disorder, autism, social phobia, and many neuropsychological disorders with virtual reality.
- Biofeedback and neurofeedback have been shown to also help successfully treat many of these same disorders. This fact makes it interesting to note that to date, no studies have been published which include real-time physiological monitoring as part of VE treatment. The potential benefits of using biofeedback/neurofeedback as part of virtual environments will be discussed.
- Prime Performance: Bob Whitehouse Liana Matulich
- Bob Whitehouse 2 35 South Clermont Street De nver, CO 80222 (303)758-4753 F303-758-4753 email#BobWhiteho@aol.com
- Hot Spots and Hot Dots: Traits and States of Elite Performers Vietta Sue Wilson
- York University 207 Winters College 4700 Keele Street North York, Ontario Canada (416)736-2100 X 77450 fax 416-736-5715 vwilson@yorkU.CA
- This session will review the EEG research literature and the QEEG profiles of approximable 50 competitive athletes for possible trait (HOT SPOTS) measures suggesting ability to perform under pressure. Included in the trait considerations are EEG differences in baseline, preferred style of thinking, and male/female differences. The session will also look at the states (HOT DOTS) associated with good performance and with attention to performance under stress. How this impacts on training for performance under stress will be discussed.
- 2 hr workshop Hot Dots Training for Performance Under Stress: Vietta Sue Wilson
- This seminar will focus on the assessment and teaching of (bio0feedback assisted self-regulation to individuals or groups who need to have high quality performances under stress . A brief Mental Skills Assessment inventory surveys the skills deemed necessary for performance during both practice and competition. From this one can better determine the type of program best suited for the performer/team. Suggestions for what self-regulation skills and (bio)feedback would be most beneficial for the person in each specific performance setting will be given.
- I.I. Assessment
- I. A. Sport Skills Required
- I. B. Athlete Abilities
- II Individual Training Program
- II A. Self Regulation- Body (Bio)feedback
- II 1. Breathing Body
- II 2. Muscle Control EMG
- II 3. Blood Flow Temp
- II B. Self-Regulation Mind
- II 1. Motivation Log
- II 2. Attention EEG
- II 3. Cognitions EEG & Log
- IIIII Training for Performance under Stress
- A. Practice requirements
- B. Transfer protocols
EEG AND SPIRITUALITY By Anna Wise
- P.O. Box 693 Corte Madera CA 94976 Telephone/Fax: (415) 927-4363 e-mail: 74237.2140@CompuServe.COM
- As we begin the transition into the third millennium, we bring with us a multitude of technological resources to help with our physical and mental health and well-being. At the same time that technology has improved beyond recognition, humankind is undergoing an unprecedented evolutionary leap. A return to spirituality, an increased awakening of awareness, and a craving for the understanding and experience of the ineffable is now a major motivating force in countless people. We can combine these two streams of technology and spirituality by using EEG for both the understanding and enhancement of personal spiritual development.
Twenty-five years of investigations into the brainwave patterns of "higher states of consciousness" has shown me the interrelationship of brainwave frequencies that develops as this awakening occurs. This subtle and individualized combination of beta, alpha, theta, and delta, can be identified, encouraged and trained. Problems that occur along with spiritual awakening, for example: inordinate "psychic" sensitivity and accelerated kundalini experiences, can be gently explained and assisted by studying EEG.
Meditation combined with EEG is one way of helping to regulate this process. In the development of self-mastery that follows, the individual may be more easily able to take the next step on his or her own evolutionary path.
- 2 hr WS THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE AWAKENED MIND - From Protocol to Matrix Anna Wise
- We have a finely woven, intricate interrelationship of brainwave frequencies that delicately determines our states of consciousness. Being able to alter the combination of beta, alpha, theta, and delta in both hemispheres is an intrinsic part of developing the self-mastery that leads to a High Performance Mind. Using the Mind MirrorTM EEG for biofeedback and biomonitoring, and different methods of meditation, sensualization and deep psycho-physiological relaxation, High Performance Mind brainwave training takes place in two formats: one-on-one consultation or group training.
Both formats can use a generalized multi-step protocol. The individualization of this protocol takes the linear format of this model and turns it into a personalized matrix that can assist both the practitioner and the client in the process of brainwave training for the awakened mind.
- THE AWAKENED MIND - A Practical and Experiential Workshop 4 hours Limited to 16 by Anna Wise
- The brainwaves of beta, alpha, theta, and delta are the building blocks that, when produced in the appropriate combinations, create the awakened mind brainwave pattern, the pattern found in people with higher states of consciousness regardless of their philosophy, theology or meditative technique. Being able to intentionally produce these combinations of brainwave frequencies, and knowing how to use them for your own insight, healing, and creativity, enable you to have an Awakened Mind.
- Different methods of meditation, sensualization, and psychophysiological relaxation affect our brainwaves in particular ways, as do specific acts such as tongue, eye and body positions. In this workshop you will learn techniques for brainwave development and management, and explore working with both the state and the content of consciousness to understand how to develop the components of a High Performance Mind. The Mind Mirror™ EEG, a real-time spectrum brainwave analyzer, which uses digital filtering to measure and display 14 frequencies in both left and right hemispheres simultaneously will be used to demonstrate brainwave patterns.
- bio:Anna Wise h