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Advanced Meeting Colloquium Feb 21-25,1997

5th Annual Winter Conference on Brain Function/EEG, Modification & Training: Advanced Meeting Colloquium Feb 21-25,1997 Palm Springs CA Organized by Rob Kall Abstracts & Workshops Alphabetically listed by author

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Winter Brain Meeting Abstracts Central Archive

Information about the next Winter Brain Meeting

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link to '97, '96, '95 Neurofeedback meeting audio and video tapes

Meeting Opening Talk: Creating light or "Getting rid of darkness

Rob Kall, meeting organizer
You can create light or try to get rid of darkness. Neuro/Biofeedback is , whether you want to think of it that way or not, a holistic, rather than a reductionistic process, which helps to optimize the individual's functioning on continuums of inhibition and disinhibition.
-The great strength of neurofeedback is in the extras it offers when you are working within the disease-based medical model. Patients gain self awareness and concrete self control skills.
-Non-medical applications of Neurofeedback (all of them) integrating technology with heart and spirit
-Taking your patients/clients/students to the next step.
-Treatment vs. learning lifelong skills

Beyond ADHD: Neurotherapy for Neurobehavioral Disorders
Tom Allen, BCIAC
The focus of this workshop will be the application of EEG neurofeedback and traditional biofeedback methods for the treatment of neurobehavioral disorders in children and adults. We will address the concept of a
continuum of neurobehavioral disorders and the types of problems that appear to respond to neuro and biofeedback treatment technigues. The techniques and methods are based on clinical data derived from
neurofeedback practice with this population. There will be live demonstrations of technigue and reviews of patient data. A copy of Mr. Allen's protocols with various neurobehaviorally disordered populations will be made available to the attendees of the workshop.
The workshop will address Tourettes, Asperger's Syndrome, Hyperlexia & Higher Function Autism in detail with some review of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. In addition there will be a discussion on
typing ADHD based on psychophysiological variables and the implications of these typologies regarding therapeutic intervention .

Biofeedback of Slow Cortical Potentials in the Treatment of Epilepsy, Severe Motor Paralysis and Aphasia
Prof. Dr. Niels Birbaumer
Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology
University of Tuebingen
Gartenstrasse 29
D-72074 Tuebingen
Tel.: 07071 2974219, 0171 6542354
Fax.: 07071 295956
Slow cortical potentials indicate a state of excitation or inhibition of large cortical neuron pools. Negative slow brain potentials of several seconds duration indicate depolarization of the underlying cortical network, positivity reflects reduction of fascilitation. In several papers biofeedback of slow cortical potentials in normal populations where described (Birbaumer et al 1990, Physiological Reviews) which showed that self-produced negativity improves those behavioral and cognitive activities which utilize mobilization of cortical networks.
Response speed, vigilance and concentration is increased during negativity, positivity reduces mobilization. Cholinergic inflow to the cortical mantle seems to be responsible for negativity, while positivity depends on the activation of GABAergic inhibitory synapses.
Measurement of brain blood flow with functional MRI during biofeedback of slow cortical potentials (Birbaumer et al, in press) demonstrates that during self-produced negativity prefrontal thalamic and parietal structures are activated while during self-induced positivity those structures are inhibited. Therefore it can be concluded that self-regulation of slow cortical potentials involves excitation and inhibition of attentional
systems in cortical and subcortical structures.
Biofeedback of slow cortical potentials was first applied to the treatment of epilepsy, particular temporal lobe epilepsy (Rockstroh et al 1989). Several controlled studies have shown that training of positivity for more than 40 sessions improves seizure frequency and neuropsychological functions in temporal lobe epilepsy: three studies with 60 patients have demonstrated that after extended training of positivity one third of patients is seizure-free, one third shows significant improvement and one third does not respond. All patients were drug-refractory epileptic patients with more than one seizure a week. These studies will be reviewed and new data will be added.
Another successful application of slow brain potential biofeedback is a brain-computer-interface communication system for locked-in patients. Locked-in-patients have no means to communicate because all muscles including face muscles are paralyzed. Most of the patients in our studies are patients with amyotrophic lateral sklerosis, a neurological disease which leads to complete motor paralysis while all sensory systems remain intact. Patients are artificially ventilated and have to be fed artificially. These patients learn to produce cortical negativity and positivity at different locations of the brain and use this brain response to select in a
special computer program verbal communication subprograms by which a more or less fluent verbal communication through the brain with the help of the computer becomes possible. Video demonstrations and
results of these studies will be presented at the conference. A new successful application of slow brain potential biofeedback is the training of left temporal negativity in aphasic patients. Already after 5 training
sessions improvement in expression and processing of words can be shown.
Research was supported by the German Research Society (DFG).

Max Cade and Humanistic Neurofeedback
Geoffrey Blundell
Audio House
Progress Road
High Wycombe HP12 4JD
Fax 01494 539 600
email Compuserve 100043,2502
Maxwell Cade, began his pioneering studies in the art of biofeedback in the late 1960's. He believed that a healthy body was the product of a healthy mind. His unique training commenced at an early age under a Japanese Zen master when he gained a martial arts black belt in Judo. His western studies were not neglected and he eventually became a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine in the Britain.
His life was devoted to the exploration of the meaning of "a healthy mind". The mind is so complex that there can be no simple response to such a quest. Each person's answer is influenced by his or her teachers and that person then influences others. In Eastern terms this is called a lineage of understanding. For Max Cade this began in Japan and is now continuing with Anna Wise who in turn may have a student who carries on this tradition.
How does this overview change the application of biofeedback methods? It becomes obvious that the content of the mind is more important than the its state as represented by the production of alpha or theta waves. It leads to a humanistic application of biofeedback which emphasises the client's own understanding of their situation.
It frees us from the feeling that fate imposes itself on us in the form of our genes or the environment or whatever. We are liberated totake charge of our lives. The minimum result is a form of preventative medicine to be applied before we become ill.

Integrating Neurofeedback with solution oriented rapid therapy:
working quickly with borderline personality disorders.
Valdeane Brown
121 Prospect St.
Port Jefferson NY 11777

The Five Phase Model of Neurofeedback; Making Order Out of Chaos
Valdeane Brown
A standardized approach to using neurofeedback in a stepwise progression consisting of the following phases
1 )SMR activation, low theta down,
2) Beta up, low theta down,
3) Alpha up, low theta suppressed still
4) alpha up with low theta stabilized and suppression feedback discontinued
5) Global Synchrony
Dysfunction is local recruitment, particularly at the low frequency.
Function is the integrated or synchronistic flowing through the entire spectrum, depending upon the environmental demand. The majority of dysfunction is tied in with 3 and five hertz neocortical generators which
are local "strange attractors" (using chaos terminology.)
The workshop will discuss the ratonale and specific frequencies used in this model. It will also disucss integration of yoga, breathing and brief therapy techniques.
Val Brown is one of America's most popular trainers in both neurofeedback and psychotherapy. He is professional, enlightening and entertaining.

abstract and workshop
The Brownback-Mason Protocol Utilizing Neurotherapy With Dissociation/Addiction
Tom Brownback
Brownback, Mason & Associates
Group Psychological Practice
1702 Walnut Street
Allentown PA 18104-6741
610-434-1540 fax 610-434-6775
The Brownback-Mason Protocol is a fully integrated
therapeutic approach for the treatment of dissociation. Dissociation is
the splitting off of consciousness from a person's identity. This
"splitting-off" process is based in trauma. Trauma affects the brain
anatomically, neurologically and biochemically. Traumatic versus
non-traumatic memories are stored in the brain in different places and in
different ways.
Until recently the only means of accessing this traumatically
stored material has been through psychotherapy, hypnotherapy and
guided imagery. These methods are typically slow, often requiring ten or
more years.
When using the Brownback-Mason Protocol, the following
results have been attained:
1. A significant increase in the ability to access the dissociated material.
2. The time to accomplish full integration is reduced by as much as 70%.
3. Clients experience a heightened sense of mastery over their lives.
What you will learn in this workshop:
1. How and why the EEG of a dissociative differs from a normal EEG.
2. Where and how traumatic memories are stored.
3. How using the Brownback-Mason Protocol will promote normalization of the EEG.
4. Why monitoring one or two bands of EEG are not enough to produce
the most effective results.
5. How to do full spectral training in order to attain attentional flexibility.
Thomas S. Brownback is a licensed psychologist in the state
of Pennsylvania, and is nationally certified in biofeedback therapy,
neurotherapy, quantitative EEG and addictions. He is the Executive
Director of Brownback, Mason and Associates, a group psychological
private practice in Allentown, Pennsylvania. Tom has appeared on
national television concerning the work that he has done in the area of
dissociation. Tom has been asked to speak at conventions and
conferences around the country about the Brownback-Mason Protocol
which utilizes neurotherapy in the treatment of dissociation/addictions.
Therapists and clients from across the country come to his office for
intensive training and intensive outpatient treatment.

Enhancing Mental Functioning in the Elderly

Thomas Budzynski, Ph.D.
SynchroMed, LCC and the Department of Psychosocial and Community Health,
University of Washington
The Charles A. Dana Foundation has noted that 4 out of 5 Americans have been affected by brain-related illness or injury, at an annual direct and indirect cost to the nation of almost $600 billion.
Memory lapses can begin at an early age and these losses progress as people age. Cognitive difficulties are often seen in the EEG as increased 3 - 8 Hz voltage as well as decreased peak alpha frequency. There is a
reduction in the ratio of (9-11)/(7-9) energy and the amplitude of the dominant frequency. Alpha blocking time is increased in the elderly.
Additionally, the p300 evoked response is slowed and reduced in amplitude. These changes are exaggerated of course, in cases of dementia and particularly Ahlzheimer's Disease, but can be seen even in individuals with memory problems who have not yet shown deficits on most medical tests. Recent research indicates that severe, chronic stress plays an important role in memory problems. Animal data also shows the damaging effects on adult memory primed by a non-nurturing early environment. Neurotherapy has shown promising results even in the very elderly (80 year-olds). Moreover, research on the EEG effects of AVS (audio/visual stimulation) and binaural tone audiocassettes indicates that these techniques may constitute an effective adjunct to the neurotherapy treatment itself.

Measuring Peak Performance
Dennis Campbell
phone: (818) 789-3491 Fax (818) 788-6137
Peak performance training has become a hot topic and there are a number of ideas being proposed as to what it actually is. While there are a number of valid approaches, many of them seem to be at odds with each other. Some are very simple single mode solutions, while others are very complex.
The chief reason seems to be that there are not only conflicting protocols, but in many cases, a significant lack of comprehensive evaluation and progress measurement techniques on which to base protocol selection and to validate effectivity.
Performance measurement or determining "fitness for duty" is an exciting new field, which has produced a number of computerized, self-scoring tests which can be used for evaluation and baselining of performance, protocol selection and progress measurement. The most important feature of these tests is that they are PERFORMANCE TESTS rather than purely diagnostic in nature, and therefore much more appropriate for use with moderate to high functioning subjects than many of the tests normally used by clinical practitioners. Several of the most accessible tests have been investigated as to their suitability and specialized application within a program for enhancing peak performance, including TOVA, THINKfast, ANAM and the Critical Tracking Test.
This presentation will review the way in which these tests operate, what parameters they measure, and how they can best be used to inform a mind-tech based peak performance program.

Q-EEG Assessment of Intensive Alpha Training
Dan Chartier, Ph.D. and Bob Crago, Ph.D.
Dan Chartier
Twelve subjects participated in intensive alpha EEG feedback training for seven consecutive days. Each day of training included 1.5 or more hours of feedback training and extensive debriefing/coaching sessions. Each subject underwent pre-and post-training Q-EEG assessment and completed psychological assessments. The Q-EEG assessment files were analyzed by a research associate blinded regarding the pre or post status of each file.

Peak Performance EEG Training and The Game of Golf
Dan Chartier, Ph.D., Larry Collins, Ed.D., Darren Koons, M.A.
Data from pre- and post-training golf scores and Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores indicate EEG feedback training has a beneficial effect on golf skill development. Fifteen subjects completed a two week series of 10 EEG training sessions and mind-body skill integration practice sessions. The EEG training included a protocol (BrainLink =AE*) that provided audio feedback contingent on the simultaneous presence of
three frequencies above a selected threshold. The skill integration practice included: (1) visualization of perfect performance of a selected golf skill while maintaining targeted EEG activity and, (2) actual practice
of the skill while attempting to produce the mind-body state achieved during the feedback training. Fourteen of the participants reported significant improvement in their game as measured by comparison of pre- and post-training scores. Twelve of the participants completed pre- and post-training POMS. The post training POMS results for 10 of those 12 subjects showed development of what is called an "Iceberg Profile", a pattern of scores that typically is found in elite athletes.
In addition to improvement in their golf game and development of elite athlete mood states a number of participants also reported significant improvement in physical and mental health. Although medical and psychological symptoms were not a focus of this study, several subjects reported improvement of troubling physical symptoms including muscle spasm pain and angina. Reports of psychological changes included improved concentration and stress coping.
The self reports of symptom improvement were supported by Symptom Checklist 90 results. Comparison of SCL-90s completed before and after training show marked improvement on all scales with the obsessive-compulsive scale having the greatest change.
* BrainLink is a registered trademark of Advanced Neurotechnologies.

Electroencephalographic Results of Human - Dolphin Interaction:
A Sonophoresis Model

David M. Cole, Foundation Chairman
AquaThought Foundation
14610 Lake Olive Dr., Ft. Myers, FL, 33919, 941-437-2958,
Abstract: The AquaThought Foundation is a privately funded research organization dedicated to the exploration of human-dolphin interaction.Since 1989, AquaThought has studied the neurological impact of close contact with dolphins on human subjects and the related therapeutic phenomena.
AquaThought's latest research seeks to establish covariant factors between various physiological changes which occur during human-dolphin interaction, and the amount of ambient echolocation energy present during the interaction.

Applications of Small Brainwave Machines
Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D., P.E.
The low-cost, portable digital EEG machine has a short history. 1 and 2-channel units for under $1000 have only been available during the 1990's. As such, applications are in an embryonic stage. Nonetheless, a wide range of areas have been identified, and are being actively pursued. These include:
EEG Biofeedback
Therapist-guided relaxation, etc
Peak-performance training, "Brain calesthenics"
Adjunct to EMG, GRS, etc.
Treatment of ADD & other clinical disorders
Computer Control & Communication
"Thought-controlled" cursor, switch
Brainwave-controlled games
Entertainment, Virtual Reality
Control of music, graphics
Control of VR Displays
Interface to Light/Sound machines
Education, Research
Labs, experiments, demonstrations
Monitoring classroom/audience attention
Military, Commercial
Screening & evaluating pilots, operators
EEG-based Cockpit controls, pilot monitoring
Assessing consumer reactions
Each of these application areas has its own requirements, history, and prospects for low-cost EEG.
EEG Biofeedback. EEG was first explored as a biofeedback modality by Kamiya, Brown, and others, beginning in the 1960's. Initial work led to a generalized relaxation model, based primarily on the alpha rhythm. Training was often done solely for the strengthening of the alpha rhythm, without regard for other variables, or other brain rhythms. It was found that developing the alpha rhythm, in and of itself, had limited value.
Continued work has developed methods that use other rhythms, or combinations of rhythms, in both encouragement and discouragement protocols, to teach users to control the relative amounts of rhythms,
providing much more precise control of the brain.
Computer Control & Communication
The use of the EEG to control or communicate with a computer is an application that has undergone slow but steady development since the 1960's. Early work by Pinneo and others attempted to record "latent motor
potentials" caused by a person thinking a work, such as "up" or "down." More recently, investigators have been looking for signals that appear controllable, and adapting the system to them. One of these is the "sensorimotor rhythm" (SMR), that has been found to be under a certain amount of conscious control. Generally, the user uses "affective" thoughts, such as "feeling light" or "stopping thinking" to cause the desired rhythm.
Entertainment, Virtual Reality
Entertainment application include EEG-controlled composition and performance, including "audience-participation" situations.
Virtual Reality displays can use EEG to modulate, alter, or otherwise control any aspect of the virtual world. For example, a system could be made sensitive to the individual's overall cognitive and emotional state, to produce an appropriate world. This could include changing the colors or sizes of objects, controlling sunrise and sunset, or causing the appearance or removal of features, or even of the entire location.

Education, Research
EEG is not well known below the level of the graduate student. Very few colleges, and no known high schools, offer any opportunity for students to record, study, and understand the EEG. This is unfortunate, because
it is becoming increasingly clear that a basic understanding of the EEG and its properties, especially with personal experience of recording (ideally one's own) EEG, can provides valuable insight into the brain, as
well as the mind. For example, individual differences can be seen in EEG patterns between people, and EEG changes in various tasks or circumstances can also be revealing. It would be desirable for a greater number of students, at and below the undergraduate level, to have direct experience with, and understanding of, the EEG.
There is a certain amount of popular use of phrases like "left brain," "right brain," "being in synch," "alpha waves," and other related concepts. We like to understand how the brain operates, but often use concepts
that we must for the most part, take for granted, because there is no practical way to check any of these ideas out. With the availability of low-cost, scientifically sound brainwave monitors, it becomes possible to effectively record and see anyone's brain rhythms, their left and right-brain activity, balance, synchrony, and other variables.

Military, Commercial
The military has a long history of studying the EEG; some of the earliest telemetric monitoring and analysis was developed by NASA during the 1960's, in connection with the space program. This was designed primarily to monitor the pilots' state of health and consciousness. In addition, the Air Force has had a long-standing program to develop EEG-based pilot controls for the cockpit. These include evoked-potential based system, which attempt to rapidly detect and act upon changes in the pilot's gaze, or level of attention, to a display item.
Commercial applications include studying subjects who are viewing advertisingmaterial or evaluating products, primarily to assess their level of interest and/or arousal.

The BrainMaster Project
Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D., P.E.
The BrainMaster Project began in January, 1995. It was conceived as a way to share information regarding the design, construction, and use of small EEG monitors, and to facilitate the development of the science and
art of brainwave training and control. Since its inception, over 500 people have been provided with detailed information, dozens of experimenters have constructed systems, and a world-wide-web site ( and e-mailing list server ( have been created.
While starting this project, I was employed on the staff of the Neurology Department of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, working on computerized epilepsy monitoring and diagnosis. Having worked with small and large EEG systems since the mid-1970's, I identified a point at which the technology was ready, making possible a
very low-cost, high-function, single-board digital EEG system. This was reported at the American EEG Society in September, 1995. Since the Clinic had no commercial interest in this, I chose to make the design
public domain, enabling virtually anyone to have access to it, thus facilitating the promulgation of the technology.
The basic hardware and system design is thus a "published" work. Simultaneous with this development, the internet began to be used more widely, and it was possible to use Usenet newsgroup postings, direct e-mail, and list servers to identify and communicate with prospective project participants. During the first year, more than 300 individuals corresponded. In November of 1995, the mailing list server was donated by, and the first "inaugural message" went out in December, 1995. From an initial list of about 75 members, the list has grown to over 300. Over 20 countries are currently represented.
Several notable developments in the computer industry have served as models for this project. The most outstanding of these are the UNIX operating system, and the Apple II personal computer. UNIX was developed in an academic setting, as a flexible, extensible, open operating system for a variety of uses. In addition, it was widely deployed in universities and research laboratories, whose students and staff undertook to further develop and improve the software.
The Apple II was the first widely popular personal computer, primarily because it was affordable, it was targeted strongly at the educational and research populations, and it had an open architecture, accelerated the development of new applications. A key concept in the BrainMaster vision is that the world needs an "Apple II of the brainwave world."

In 1980, the Apple II could replace a $25,000 computer in an air-conditioned lab staffed by a graduate student, and put the computer into any lab or home, for $2500. New applications, such as spreadsheets, word processors, and the infamous interactive fiction game, then became possible, further extending the scope of the technology. Similarly, by the year 2000, the BrainMaster and its kin will be able to replace a $25,000 EEG in a lab staffed by an EEG technician, and bring it to labs and homes for yet unexplored applications. (What types of programs will become the "Visicalc's" or "Lotus's" of EEG software??)
What could be more fitting than to give this to ourselves, in the Decade of the Brain?

Project Description
Currently, project participants have several ways to obtain and/or build hardware, free software for the Windows environment, projects to port the software to the Mac and Visual Basic, and various sources of information and support, primarily using the internet.
The most notable result from such a project is the technical and applications innovation that result when many people share a common interest, and have access to technology. Many people have already studied, worked with, and contributed to, the BrainMaster hardware and software design. The tangible contributions received from participants thus far include:
Analysis and redesign of the EEG amplifiers (T. Bruhns, Hewlett-Packard) Data acquisition code. (Dr. R. Webber, Johns Hopkins University) Provision of WWW server, and e-mailing list server (V. Skinner,
Web Site design & layout (P. Ivanik, Lehigh University)Calibration signal generator (J. Evanko, Cleveland Clinic) Image scanning capability (T. Homa, Cleveland Clinic) Enclosure and assembly procedure (Dr. E. Jacobs, Cleveland Clinic) Soundblaster-compatible sound generation code (Dr. J. Stevenson, NASA)
Treatment of ADD patients (Dr. M. McKee & Mr. J. Kiffer, Cleveland Clinic) Suggestions for text/graphical screens (Dr. C. Weitman, Cleveland) Field trials, user feedback (too many to cite)
Although this is an open project, all participants retain the rights to their own work. As things develop, it is likely that opportunities will arise for related hardware and software, including light/sound interfaces, virtual reality, education, games, performance, art, and many other applications. This project aims to encourage innovation, in the hope that products, as well as markets, will continue to develop and grow stronger, for the mutual benefit of everyone who is interested in this new, exciting, and evolutionary area.

2hr workshop
The T.O.V.A.(R) in Clinical Practice by Clifford L. Corman, MD
UAD 4281 Katella #215, Los Alamitos, CA 90720.
1-800-729-2886 fax 714-229-8782
The presentation will cover the following. Specifications, validity, and variables will be described, as well as, use of the T.O.V.A. in various settings. Comparisons and descriptions of other continuous performance tests will be introduced and discussed.
Finally, case presentations will be discussed to demonstrate:
1. Clinical applications, including a discussion of behavior vs. cognitive emphasis.
2. Effects of nicotine, caffeine, and prozac.
3. An example of head injury effects.
4. Effects of IQ on the variables of attention.
5. An interview form for adults and adolescents.

FUTUREHEALTH Inc (founded 1978) is one of the world's best sources for neurofeedback technologies-- new and used biofeedback systems, sound and light machines, books, tapes, accessories, etc. FUTUREHEALTH Inc. 211 N. Sycamore, Newtown, PA 18940, 215-504-1700 fax 215-860-5374

Link to Neurofeedback instrumentation

The Concentration-Relaxation Cycle: Application to Neurofeedback Training
Jonathan Cowan, Ph.D.,
NeuroTechnology Inc
1103 Hollendale Way
Goshen, KY 40026
502-228-0605 fax 502-228-5228
As part of his studies on pilots for the Air Force, Dr. Barry Sterman established that they would continuously cycle between concentration and relaxation. As they focussed on one task, alpha frequencies would remain suppressed. Between tasks, there was an alpha burst which was shorter in duration in the better pilots. I will present evidence that this finding is actually an example of a much more widespread cycle which affects all of our lives, when we are functioning optimally at work or school. Although neurofeedback pioneers such as Dr. Les Fehmi have been emphasizing the development of the flexibility of attention for many years, I believe that training clients to intentionally perform this cycle is a more precise way to enhance clinical outcomes. I will describe some new clinical training meth ods, which combine innovative neurofeedback protocols, breathing biofeedback, autogenic training, and automated reminders to take a brief relaxation break.

Adverse Effects On Neurotherapy From Ingestion of Excitotoxins And Other Dietary Substances
Joy W. Craddick MD,
Partners For Health
1206 Linda Avenue, Ashland, Oregon, 97520
541-488-0478, FAX 541-488-5509
Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, and monosodium glutamate, a taste enhancer, have been found to induce a pattern of brain injury in clients undergoing neurotherapy for a variety of conditions. Case presentations will illustrate the adverse effects of these "excitotoxins", a descriptive term coined by Russell Blaylock MD, Associate Professor of Neurosurgery at the University of Mississippi School of Medicine. Dr. Blaylock's research indicates that excitotoxins may be responsible for the marked increased incidence of brain tumors, as well as other central nervous system conditions. This is well documented in his recent book, Excitotoxins, The Taste That Kills. In our experience, people with previous head injury who are undergong neurotherapy appear to be most susceptible to the effects of these substances. In addition, examples of the EEG effects of other substances such as sugar and caffeine will be presented. Unfortunately, at present, processed food companies are not required to label additives that contain MSG, although grassroots efforts are now underway to change this policy. Until then clients must be encouraged to read labels on all prepared foods. The following additives always contain MSG: hydrolyzed vegetable protein, hydrolyzed protein, hydrolyzed plant protein, plant protein extract, sodium caseinate, calcium caseinate, yeast extract, textured protein, autolyzed yeast, and hydrolyzed oat flour. Additives that frequently contain MSG are malt extract, malt flavoring, boullion, broth stock, flavoring, natural flavoring, natural beef or chicken flavoring, seasoning and prepared (not fresh) spices. Additives that may contain MSG are carrageenan, enzymes, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, and whey protein concentrate.
This is a partial list of the most common names for disguised MSG, an excitotoxin.

Frank Echenhofer, Ph.D.
San Francisco State University Mailing Address: P.O. Box 192, Jenner, CA 95450 phone: (707) 865-1412 e-mail:
This talk will present the results of EEG meditation research in India sponsored by the Institute of Noetic Sciences. The collaborative model of research used with the Tibetan Buddhist monks will be described. Insights from this research served as the inspiration and foundation for later research and applications for exploring consciousness that will be addressed in detail during the afternoon workshop. Immediately following this talk will be a conference break when a video will be shown of discussions with the Dalai Lama regarding EEG and consciousness research.

Workshop: 2-6pm Sunday
Frank Echenhofer, Ph.D. San Francisco State University Mailing Address: P.O. Box 192, Jenner, CA 95450 phone: (707) 865-1412 e-mail:
This workshop will offer a structured program to use EEG biofeedback to explore consciousness. EEG biofeedback is value-neutral and requires a context. Western psychology has existed for about 100 years. In contrast, the Eastern mystical traditions have developed over thousands of years and are the essential and vibrant core of the great world religions. These traditions contain complete systems that offer very practical programs to explore consciousness.
This workshop will draw upon the teachings, structures, and methods of the mystical traditions to provide a rich and deep spiritual context for EEG biofeedback and a source for the emergence of the specific areas of consciousness to be explored. These ancient systems provide needed focus and guidelines regarding the developmental stages and/or exceptional abilities associated with developing awareness. This workshop will summarize these developmental stages and describe their functional significance in terms of modern neuroscience and evolutionary psychology.
Some of the developmental stages and/or exceptional abilities to be conceptually bridged from the mystical to the scientific traditions include perfect concentration ability, a calm mind, thought cessation, lessening grasping and aversion, deconstructing the nature of self and the world (emptiness), the development of compassion, the value of visualization of subtle physiology and archetypal imagery, the transformation of anger an sexual desire, and sacred physical sexuality.
A range of EEG methods which have been developed to explore the above areas from the dual perspective of mysticism and science will be presented and demonstrated. The rationale for these methods will be fully described both from the neuroscience and the spiritual perspectives.
Participants will have the opportunity to experience some of the methods used to explore consciousness during the workshop and provided with detailed descriptions to use later in their own settings with their own EEG biofeedback equipment. These methods are not specific to any particular type of EEG instrumentation. This workshop will include video of EEG meditation research in India, including footage of discussions with the Dalai Lama and other advanced meditators.
Frank Echenhofer, Ph.D. is a Past-President of the Pennsylvania Society of Behavioral Medicine and Biofeedback and a licensed psychologist living in Jenner, CA, north of San Francisco. He is a faculty member of the Holistic Health Program at San Francisco State University. He is currently completing a NIH grant using EEG biofeedback to treat mild traumatic head injury. In 1991 he sought out the Dalai Lama's help to conduct EEG research with advanced meditators in northern India. He co-founded the Tibetan Buddhist Center in Philadelphia and the Institute for Multidisciplinary Studies to conduct EEG research on consciousness. Currently he works in the San Francisco Bay area with individuals and groups offering programs to explore consciousness using EEG biofeedback and other methods.

Brains & Minds Meet The Third Millenium
Marilyn Ferguson
Box 421069
Los Angeles, CA 90042
213-223-2500 fax 213-223-2519
Many "new paradigms" have gained popular acceptance in recent years. People freely talk about alternative medicine, black holes, quantum leaps, near death experiences, bonding, remote viewing, reight and left hemispheres, brain stimulation, emotional literacy, social intelligence.
Years ago Fritjof Capra remarked, "Most physicists still go home and live their lives as if Newton was right. "
Where is the Big One, the sum of it all, "the" new paradigm that's supposed to be emerging? Somehow the fascinating puzzle pieces from the various disciplines have yet to be assembled together. When enough specialists pool their state-of-the-art findings and theories we will have a revolution worth writing home about.
Even a brief tour of breakthroughs reveals the outline of a reality spacious enough to accomodate the far-out and sensible enough to satisfy all but the die-hards.

Streams of Consciousness
WK4-6 Marilyn Ferguson
Is consciousness mediated through cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles? Our forefathers thought so. The notion didn't fade out until the mid 18th century, when more "scientific" thought came into play. In fact, such a model helps account for a number of apparent anomalies, such as the relatively normal intelligence found in some hydrocephalics and the way learning seems to be diffuse rather than localized. This workshop looks at evidence for this classical view and the practical implications for research medicine, education and therapy.
Publisher of Brain/Mind Bulletin, American Society for Training and Development Brain Trainer of the Year, author of Brain Revolution, Aquarian Conspiracy and Radical Common Sense (forthcoming.)

Maintenance of Cognitive Improvements in Mildly Developmentally
Delayed Twins Treated with EEG Biofeedback

Matthew J. Fleischman, Ph.D.
915 Oak Street, Suite 300
Eugene, OR 97401
(541) 343-9221
fax: (541) 343-6410
There are multiple reports demonstrating improvements in cognitive performance from EEG biofeedback. However there is relatively little follow-up reports as to the degree these improvement maintained. This study reports on improvements in a pair of identical twin girls who were eight year old when treated. Data was collected prior to treatment, at termination and 18 months later.

Prior to treatment, one girl's IQ was in the borderline range while the other was 12 points lower placing her in the Intellectually Deficient range. TOVA scores for both were well outside the normal range as were the reported number of DSM-III symptoms for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Each child's overall language and social functioning was described as consistent with their impaired intelligence.
Treatment was 40 sessions of a combination of mostly Cz Beta with some Cz SMR. Follow up testing showed an increase of 22 and 23 points in their respective IQ's and marked improvements in the overall
TOVA scores and ADD symptoms both in terms of number and severity. However both girls still met criteria for ADD based on both the TOVA and symptom reports.
At 18 month follow-up there was a small decline in IQ of 7 and 5 points respectively, still significantly greater than the pre-treatment scores. TOVA scores and symptom reports however showed further improvement though both girls still displayed symptoms of ADD.
Both are reported to be doing well academically and socially.

Brain Plasiticity and Pain: New Treatment Approaches
Herta Flor, PhD,
Professor of Clinical Psychology
and Behavioral Neuroscience
Department of Psychology
Humboldt-University Berlin
Hausvogteiplatz 5-7
Tel: +49-30-20377309, -330
Fax: +49-30-20377308
Recent neuroscientific research has shown two types of plastic changes are associated with states of chronic pain. In chronic back pain patients, the ongoing nociceptive barrage leads to cortical hyperreactivity and an expansion of the representation of the back in primary somatosensory cortex.This stimulation-induced plasticity is complemented by lesion-induced plasticity in phantom limb pain. The cortical representation of the
amputated limb is taken over by adjacent cortical areas and the amount of this reorganization is highly correlated with the intensity of phantom limb pain. We are currently testing behavioral as well as psychophysiologocal methods to alter and potentially eliminate these cortical pain memories that maintain the chronic pain syndrome.

Reading the Brain Through the Skin? The First Consumer Computer Product Operated by Human Thought.
-George Fuller von Bozzay, Ph.D.
Biofeedback Institute of San Francisco
Behavioral Medicine Stress Management Clinic
3428 Sacramento St. San Francisco, CA 94118
(415) 921-6500 FAX (415) 921-5457 E-MAIL: BIOFDBK@iTSA.UCSF.EDU
Attn: Dr. George Fuller von Bozzay
The MindDrive developed by a Sausalito, CA company called The Other 90% Technologies has the capability to move images, runcomputers, and even control videogames with just one's thoughts. Advanced hardware including a sleek finger sensor and serial interface with software capable of decoding the many signals read from the skin surface can be used to accomplish this feat. As with EEG, EMG, and other physiological signals,
the Electrodermal Activity has many variables embedded within it. Power Spectrum Analyis of this signal can analyze the frequency and amplitude changes over time. Sophisticated algorhythms can parcel out the slope, change,range, limits, bandpass peaks, and acceleration qualities of the signal. Five years and 5 millon dollars later, these algorhythms detect mental activity and immediately reflect it on the computer monitor. While, for consumer acceptance and financial stability reasons, the first software available is mostly entertainment oriented (MindSkiier, MindBowling, MindFlight), some are educational (MindArt, MindMusic, Fib), and soon new software will address issues of Peak Performance, Concentration, Memory and Creativity. Automated teaching machines which will only advance when the student is paying attention to the lesson, and Business /Ergonomic programs that detect high arousal, inefficiency and stress response and provide screen saver feedback of self-correcting activities are currently in final development.

Photic stimulation as a key tool for healing and peak performance protocols
Dr. Uwe Gerlach
D-79585 Steinen-Hofen
CompuServe 101362,1022
Conducting workshops of intuitive Alpha-Theta training and watching the effects of photic driving during and after LS sessions with hundreds of participants, I was able to systemize the observations:
1) Only more skilled people gain serious interest in "electronic meditation".
2) On the other hand children and the more "vital" and intuitive persons show immediately positive effects.
3) It is difficult to compare LS adventures with traditional meditation methods, which are more systematic but much slower.
4) People with instabile ego-functions don't like photic stimulation, so one has a controlling function for the access.
5) If a person is near to its own psychic transformation, the method can accelerate such development.
Studying state-of-the-art neurofeedback systematically, I propose the following mechanisms being effective:
- Coherence of brainwaves til complete hemispheric synchronization; we deal with "different aggregate states" postulated in the theory of chaos physics or altered states of consciousness. Photic stimulation or the feedback of e.g. SMR act as "Ordner" (Hermann Haken) to accomplish the coherence of brainwaves.
- The classical neurofeedback of specific frequencies has a similar effect as photic coherence training; the rigid brainwave structure is temporarily destabilized and must find new organizing patterns. The classical type of training is "softer" and less invasive than synchronizing brainwaves by photic driving.
- For peak performance and spiritual development purpose coherence training is necessary in order to achieve altered states.
- The ultimate goal is to dynamize all sorts of rigid structures; it doesn't matter which training protocol may achieve this, if it is successfully done. This philosophy has been introduced by Len Ochs.
Brief bio - Dr. Uwe Gerlach, Germany:
Today I'm 52 years old, my profession is physicist. My normal career was in the field of materials science. I did a lot of scientific research and worked many years as a materials engineer. My second career began in the early 80's with a severe sickness consisting of a deep depression and phobias. I cured them with the aid of bodily centered psychotherapy (holotropic breathwork) and two years of daily deep relaxation training.
The relaxation methods were breathwork, floatation tank and sauna. In addition to psychotherapy I experienced transpersonal phenomena and spiritual transformation similar to descriptions of Stanislav Grof.
Since 1990 I am part of the Megabrain movement in Germany. I wrote two books around these topics and became an expert of brain technology. From 1991 til today, I offer mental training workshops assisted by light and sound technology. Many workshops take place in great holiday clubs. In the past three years I became interested in neurofeedback and studied its main structure and its actual state-of-the-art. Two years ago I founded my own company "info-brain" in collaboration with medical doctors and trainers experienced in light and sound technology.

Autonomic Control of Muscle Pain
Richard Gevirtz, Ph.D.
Cal. school of Professional Psychology-San Diego
6160 Cornerstone Ct. East
San Diego, CA 92121
619-623-2777 ext 324
(f) 619-552-1974
Our group has recently shown that there is a significant sympathetic component to muscle which is largely independent of other sympathetic measures. This means that muscle pain syndromes can truly be thought of as psychophysiological. Since recent evidence has elucidated central mechanisms in chronic pain, it is possible that measures derived from CNS output will help us understand and change chronic pain disorders. This evidence will be reviewed and discussed in terms of : 1) treatment implications targeting the peripheral mechanisms, 2) central components, 3) potential neurofeedback applications which might target the origins in the CNS of the pathway.

John Gruzelier, Elinor Hardman, Jennifer Wild, Kate Cheesman and Ceri Jones
Professor John Gruzelier Department of Psychiatry, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, St Dunstans Road, London, W6 8RF, UK.
Jennifer Wild, Department of Psychiatry, Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, St Dunstans Road, London, W6 8RF, UK.,
Subjects naive to biofeedback learned lateralised interhemispheric control of slow cortical potentials (SCPs) across electrode sites C3-C4 (N=15) or F3-F4 (N=16) during three sessions of visual EEG biofeedback. Subjects were required to generate slow negativity shifts either towards the left or the right hemisphere in sixty pseudorandomly ordered trials per session. For C3-C4 training all subjects were instructed to concentrate on sensations in contralateral arm. For F3-F4 training subjects were either told (N=8) to use emotional strategies in the task (positive emotions for left hemisphere activiaton, negative emotion for right hemisphere activiation) or (N=8) they received no guidance. Both groups received feedback in the form of an on-screen rocket ship, initially centrally placed, which rose to indicate an increase in left hemisphere negativity (relative to the right hemisphere) and fell to indicate an increase in right hemisphere negativity. At C3-C4, assisted with a strategy to concentrate on the contralateral arm, subjects were surprisingly successful in learning control as shown in a MANOVA
(Session x Block x Stimulus A/B), in which there was a main effect of stimulus F(1,14)=14.38, p <.002, without effects of session or block or interactions. On A trials there was a leftward shift (-0.69) and on B trials a rightward shift (+1.52). At F3 and F4 where subjects were divided into a strategy (positive vs. negati\ve emotion) and no-strategy group, asymmetry control was acheived in the third block of trials in all sessions,
where there was a main effect of stimulus(p<.001).
The no strategy group showed a particularly strong within session learning effect (p<0.0037). Individual differences in schizotypy syndromes, attention and arousal were examined for relations with control of asymmetry. Calmness and tiredness bore some relations, unlike attentional focusing abilities. However, the stronger advantage was to withdrawn subjects particularly regarding rightward shifts which is in keeping with right hemispheric involvement in behavioural withdrawal.
These are the first formal group demonstrations of the self-regulation of interhemispheric asymmetry.
We gratefully acknowledge the support of a NARSAD Senior Investigator Award.

link to '97, '96, '95 Neurofeedback meeting audio and video tapes

Pre and Post QEEG in Successful Neurofeedback Remediation
Jay Gunkelman
415-924-8239 fax 415-924-3386
Current QEEG techniques are being used in the evaluation of
potential neurofeedback clients. The QEEG data is used by some to predict successful electrode sites and frequencies for training. This pilot study investigates a small number of cases where the QEEG predictions are followed. It also evaluates the QEEG changes following the clinically perceived successful biofeedback. QEEG mapping will be displayed for cases pre and post treatment. Implications for standardized protocols will be discussed.

workshop WA
Jay Gunkelman: Advanced Topics in QEEG
Patterns seen in ADD/ADHD/LD, Depression, OCD, Trauma etc, Techniques to miinimize artifact
Mu and LAmbda seen in mapping Coherence: Graphics or tables Montage and result Laplacian, linked ears, common average Artifacting and stage 1 sleep Certification why and why not
Higher analysis: z-score, cluster, discriminate, factor Database considerations
Bring your case data for discussion

Intro to QEEG & Neurofeedback
Jay Gunkelman
How a QEEG is done.
Definitions: Power, relative power, coherence, symmetry, etc.
Samples of QEEG by diagnostic groups
Implications for NF electrode Placements
Inplications for NF frequency selections
The workshop will also include a discussion of databases available for comparison and the Z score and regression analysis used in data base comparisons. A section on clinical applications of QEEG in ADD/ADHD, autoimmune disease, depression, head trauma and other applications will finish the presentation.

Six Neurofeedback Trainings Case Histories from Intensive Trainings in Alpha and Beta Feedback
Dr. James V. Hardt
Biocybernaut Institute
1052 Rhode Island Street
San Francisco, CA 94107
(415) 824-0688 [Phone]
(415) 824-2669 [Fax]
Six different trainings reveal the wide range of effectiveness of Biocybernaut Institute Neurofeedback training programs. All trainings involved simultaneous integrated amplitude feedback on 4 different cortical sites [O1 , O2 , C3 , C4 ], and were conducted using individual or group EEG feedback systems from Biocybernaut Institute. Four trainings were Individual trainings and two were Group trainings. A 7-day
Individual alpha training resolved panic attacks and anxiety in a young housewife who has been free of problems for 12 years following her training in 1985. A 10 day Individual training resolved chronic pain and depression in a suicidal police officer by evoking the White Light experience in her. Two other Individual trainings used 10 days of alpha feedback and 10 days of beta feedback to determine the differential
therapeutic effectiveness of alpha and beta feedback. Beta feedback actually increased undesirable characteristics, while alpha feedback resolved depression and bereavement in an elderly widow. Alpha feedback also resolved paranoia and hostility, and reduced schizophrenia in an unemployable young man. Two 7-day Group alpha trainings were also studied. One two-person group included a scientist with chronic depression, high cortisol levels and progressive loss of bone density, together with an