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Day 1: Australia 2012

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  • there should be no more than two people per bedroom;
  • a household of one unattached individual may reasonably occupy a bed-sit;
  • couples and parents should have a separate bedroom;
  • children less than five years of age, of different sexes, may reasonably share a bedroom;
  • children five years of age or over, of the opposite sex, should not share a bedroom;
  • children less than 18 years of age and of the same sex may reasonably share a bedroom; and
  • single household members aged 18 years or over should have a separate bedroom.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 40.
[108] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 40-41.
[109] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 41.
[110] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 41.
[111] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 41.
[112] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 42.
[113] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 43.
[114] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 43.
[115] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 42.
[116] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Housing and Infrastructure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities 2006 (Reissue), ABS cat no 4710.0, (2007) p 87.
[117] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Housing and Infrastructure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities 2006 (Reissue), ABS cat no 4710.0, (2007) p 56, Table 4.9.
[118] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 43.
[119] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 43.
[120] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 43.
[121] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 42.
[122] Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody, National Report (1991) volume 1, para. 9.3.1. At: www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndgLRes/rciadic (viewed 19 January 2009).
[123] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia 2008, ABS cat no 4517.0 (2008) p 22, table 8.
[124] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia 2008, ABS cat no 4517.0 (2008) p 6.
[125] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia 2008, ABS cat no 4517.0 (2008) p 6.
[126] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia 2008, ABS cat no 4517.0 (2008) p 6.
[127] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia 2008, ABS cat no 4517.0 (2008) p 6.
[128] D Weatherburn, B Lind, B Hua and J Hua, "Contact with the New South Wales court and prison system: the influence of age, Indigenous status and gender' (2003) Crime and Justice Bulletin 78(1) p 4-5. At click here='_blank' (viewed 19 January 2009).
[129] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Prisoners in Australia 2008, ABS cat no 4517.0 (2008) p 8.
[130] M Cameron, "Women Prisoners and Correctional Programs', AIC Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, no 194, Australian Institute of Criminology (2001) p 1.
[131] Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators 2007, Productivity Commission (2007) p 128.
[132] Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision, Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage: Key Indicators 2007, Productivity Commission (2007) p 129.
[133] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 228.
[134] M Lynch, J Buckman, and L Krenske, AIC Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology and Queensland Crime and Misconduct Commission, Issues paper 265 (2003).
[135] M Lynch, J Buckman, and L Krenske, AIC Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology and Queensland Crime and Misconduct Commission, Issues paper 265 (2003) p 2.
[136] Australian Medical Association, Undue Punishment? Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders in Prison: An Unacceptable Reality, Australian Medical Association Report Card Series (2006). At https://fed.ama.com.au/cms/web.nsf/doc/WEEN-6PU9BH/$file/Indigenous_Report_Card_2006.pdf (viewed 19 January 2009).
[137] T Butler, L Boonwaat and S Hailstone, National Prison Entrants Bloodborne Virus Survey Report 2004, Centre for Health Research in Criminal Justice and National Centre for HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research (2005), p 5. At http://www.justicehealth.nsw.gov.au/publications/bbv_survey.pdf (viewed 19 January 2009).
[138] T Butler, L Boonwaat and S Hailstone, National Prison Entrants Bloodborne Virus Survey Report 2004, Centre for Health Research in Criminal Justice and National Centre for HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research (2005), p 5. At http://www.justicehealth.nsw.gov.au/publications/bbv_survey.pdf (viewed 19 January 2009).
[139] A Kariminia, T Butler, S Corben, M Levy, L Grant, J Kaldor and M Law, "Extreme cause-specific mortality in a cohort of adult prisoners- 1988-2002: a data linkage study' (2007) 36(2) International Journal of Epidemilogy 310, p 314.
[140] A Kariminia, T Butler, S Corben, M Levy, L Grant, J Kaldor and M Law, "Extreme cause-specific mortality in a cohort of adult prisoners- 1988-2002: a data linkage study' (2007) 36(2) International Journal of Epidemilogy 310, p 310.
[141] M Lynch, J Buckman, and L Krenske, AIC Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology and Queensland Crime and Misconduct Commission, Issues paper 265 (2003) p ix .
[142] J Joudo and J Curnow, Deaths in Custody in Australia: National deaths in Custody program annual report 2006, Australian Institute of Criminology, Technical and Background paper no. 85 (2006) p xiii.
[143] Australian Bureau of Statistics, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2004-05, ABS cat no 4715.0 (2005) p 2.
[144] Australian Bureau of Statistics, National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2004-05, ABS cat no 4715.0 (2005) p 5-6.
[145] Kulunga Research Network and the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Submission to the Senate Committee Inquiry into the Stolen Generation Compensation Bill 2008, April 9, 2008. At www.aph.gov.au/SENATE/committee/legcon_ctte/stolen_generation_compenation/submissions/sub42.pdf (viewed 19 January 2009).
[146] For a detailed explanation of care and protection classifications and statistics see: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Child Protection 2001-02 (2003) ch 1.
[147] The ABS cautions that data for Tasmania, however, should be interpreted with caution due to the low incidence of child protection workers recording Indigenous status at the time of the substantiation: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 2001, ABS cat no 4705.0 (2002) p 222.

[148] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 2001, ABS cat no 4705.0 (2002) p 223, Table 11.2.
[149] The ABS cautions that SA data should be interpreted with caution due to the high proportion of investigations not finalised by 31 August 2006 (the cut-off date for the processing of investigations for inclusion in the data for that year).
[150] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians 2001, ABS cat no 4705.0 (2002) p 223, Table 11.3.
[151] P Anderson and R Wild, Ampe Akelyernemane Meke Mekarle - Little Children are Sacred, Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse (2007).
[152] P Anderson and R Wild, Ampe Akelyernemane Meke Mekarle - Little Children are Sacred, Report of the Northern Territory Board of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse (2007), p 6. [153] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 225, Table 11.4. [154] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 225, Table 11.4.
[155] Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australian Bureau of Statistics, The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples 2008, ABS cat no 4704.0 (2008) p 225.
[156] Access Economics for Reconciliation Australia, An overview of the economic impact of Indigenous disadvantage, (2008) p 5-6 (extracts). At click here (viewed 19 January 2008).

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Lewis Mehl-Madrona graduated from Stanford University School of Medicine and completed residencies in family medicine and in psychiatry at the University of Vermont. He is the author of Coyote Medicine, Coyote Healing, Coyote Wisdom, and (more...)
 
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