- 86% of Indigenous respondents reported speaking only English at home, which is about the same as the non-Indigenous population (83%);
- 12% of Indigenous respondents reported speaking an Indigenous language at home; with three quarters of those recording they were also fluent in English;
- Many Indigenous peoples are bilingual; however, the pattern varies with geographical location with 56% of respondents living in remote areas reported speaking an Indigenous language, compared with one per cent in urban centres;
- Older Indigenous peoples (over 45 years) are more likely to speak an Indigenous language than younger Indigenous peoples. (Of those Indigenous peoples aged 45 years and over, 13% speak an Indigenous language, compared with 10% of 0-14 year olds);
- Indigenous languages are more likely to be spoken in the centre and north of Australia than in the south. 
Self reported health status
In the NATSIHS 2004--05:
- 43% of Indigenous respondents aged 15 years and over reported their health as very good or excellent;
- 35% reported their health as being good; and
- 22% reported their health as fair or poor.
After adjusting for differences in the age structures of the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, Indigenous Australians were twice as likely as non-Indigenous Australians to report their health as fair or poor in 2004--05.
Indigenous Australians aged 15 years and over in non-remote areas were more likely than those in remote areas to report fair or poor health (23% compared with 19%). 
Under the life expectation estimation formula adopted by the ABS in 2003,  Indigenous males' life expectation was estimated to be 59.4 years over 1996-2001, while female life expectation was estimated to be 64.8 years: a life expectation inequality gap when compared to the general Australian population of approximately 17 years for the same five year period. The ABS has not released a life expectation estimate for Indigenous peoples for the years 2002 on. 
The gap in life expectation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians exists in part because of the dramatic increase in life expectation enjoyed by the non-Indigenous population over the past century. Over the period 1890 -- 1997, for example, it has been estimated that, for the non-Indigenous population, women's life expectancy increased around 26 years; while for males, 28 years. In contrast, while figures are not available, much smaller gains appear to have occurred in the Indigenous population contributing to the development of a 17 year life expectation gap. 
Text Box 1: International comparisons in Indigenous peoples' life expectancy