What this all means is that chronic pain is multiply determined and that we need to change the brain to change pain. Pain is associated with emotion and becomes correlated with multiple events that happen in a person's life. These events become linked with pain and their memory triggers pain. It's hard to get rid of these triggers without active intervention. The longer the person has chronic pain, the more triggers develop. To remove chronic pain, we need to work with these associations and their paired emotions to reduce the triggers. This is largely psychological work.
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